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Miller S.E.,Smithsonian Institution | Hausmann A.,SNSB Zoologische Staatssammlung Munich | Hallwachs W.,University of Pennsylvania | Janzen D.H.,University of Pennsylvania
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

We use three examples—field and ecology-based inventories in Costa Rica and Papua New Guinea and a museum and taxonomic-based inventory of the moth family Geometridae—to demonstrate the use of DNA barcoding (a short sequence of the mitochondrial COI gene) in biodiversity inventories, from facilitating workflows of identification of freshly collected specimens from the field, to describing the overall diversity of megadiverse taxa from museum collections, and most importantly linking the fresh specimens, the general museum collections and historic type specimens. The process also flushes out unexpected sibling species hiding under long-applied scientific names, thereby clarifying and parsing previously mixed collateral data. The Barcode of Life Database has matured to an essential interactive platform for the multi-authored and multi-process collaboration. The BIN system of creating and tracking DNA sequence-based clusters as proxies for species has become a powerful way around some parts of the ‘taxonomic impediment’, especially in entomology, by providing fast but testable and tractable species hypotheses, tools for visualizing the distribution of those in time and space and an interim naming system for communication. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Wagele H.,Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | Klussmann-Kolb A.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Verbeek E.,Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | Schrodl M.,SNSB Zoologische Staatssammlung Munich
Organisms Diversity and Evolution | Year: 2014

Opisthobranchia have experienced an unsettled taxonomic history. At the moment their taxonomy is in state of dramatic flux as recent phylogenetic studies have revealed traditional Opisthobranchia to be paraphyletic or even polyphyletic, allocating some traditional opisthobranch taxa to other groups of Heterobranchia, e.g. Pulmonata. Here we review the history of Opisthobranchia and their subgroups, explain their traditionally proposed relationships, and outline the most recent phylogenetic analyses based on various methods (morphology, single gene and multiple gene analyses, as well as genomic data). We also present a phylogenetic hypothesis on Heterobranchia that, according to the latest results, represents a consensus and is the most probable one available to date. The proposed phylogeny supports the Acteonoidea outside of monophyletic Euthyneura, the basal euthyneuran split into Nudipleura (Nudibranchia plus Pleurobranchoidea) and the recently established taxon Tectipleura. The latter divides into the Euopisthobranchia, containing most of the major traditional opisthobranch clades, and the Panpulmonata, with a mix of the former opisthobranch, putative allogastropod and pulmonate taxa. This "new euthyneuran tree" rejects the traditional taxa Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, and, in particular, has profound implications for preconceived textbook scenarios of opisthobranch and pulmonate evolution, which must now be reconsidered. In the absence of systematic barriers, research communities - which have traditionally investigated marine and non-marine heterobranchs separately - need to interact and finally merge for the sake of science. © 2013 The Author(s).

The skeleton and musculature of the male terminalia were examined and depicted in seven Palaearctic species from the tribes Eupitheciini Pierce, Melanthiini Duponchel, Perizomini Herbulot and Rheumapterini Herbulot (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae) characterized by the presence of the eupitheciine labides in the male genitalia. Nine genital muscles, typical of the subfamily, were identified: m1, m2(10), m3(2), m4, m5(7), m6(5), m7(6), m8(3) and m21. The places of attachment of the muscles m3(2), m4 and m5(7) to the genital sclerites afford useful characters for the higher classification of this group. A few principal genital characters which previously received little attention are discussed, including fusion of the transtilla with parts of the labides and presence of the gnathos in several larentiine tribes. © 2014, Verlag dr Friedrich Pfeil. All rights reserved.

Based on the study of morphological characters and DNA barcode (CO1) data, the present review revealed the existence of at least three species of Visiana Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) in Australia. Visiana brujata (Guenée) is redescribed, and two species V. incertata (Walker), stat. rev. and V. repentinata (Walker), stat. rev. are resur-rected from synonymy with V. brujata. Visiana breviaria (Walker), syn. rev., previously cited as a synonym of V. brujata, is now considered a synonym of V. incertata. Visiana brujata and V. incertata show close affinities with the sordidata group of species, whereas V. repentinata belongs to the vinosa species group. Images of adults and genitalia of all types are illustrated and the presence of the gnathos in the genus Visiana is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.

Schonitzer K.,SNSB Zoologische Staatssammlung Munich
Spixiana | Year: 2015

Faunistics as part of the science of zoology is characterized and its general tools and perspectives are given. The ultimate aim of faunistics is the knowledge of the distribution of all animal species and subspecies of the whole world. Faunistics is a descriptive science and a fundamental base for biogeography and the understanding of biodiversity. © 2015, Verlag dr Friedrich Pfeil. All rights reserved.

Baehr M.,SNSB Zoologische Staatssammlung Munich
Spixiana | Year: 2015

A new carabid species of the tribe Zolini is described from Tasmania: Sloaneana curvicollis, spec. nov. It is compared with the widespread S. tasmaniae (Sloane) which likewise occurs in Tasmania. For the four recorded species of the genus Sloaneana Csiki, 1933 a complete new key is provided. © 2015, Verlag dr Friedrich Pfeil. All rights reserved.

Baehr M.,SNSB Zoologische Staatssammlung Munich
Spixiana | Year: 2015

The lebiine species Aristolebia rutilipennis, spec. nov. from North Vietnam is described. The hitherto unknown male genitalia of the recently described A. rubiginosa Kirschenhofer are also described and figured. Both species are introduced in the most recent key to the genus. © 2015, Verlag dr Friedrich Pfeil. All rights reserved.

Baehr M.,SNSB Zoologische Staatssammlung Munich
Spixiana | Year: 2014

Four additional new species of the platynine genus Arhytinus Bates, 1889 are described: A. weigeli, A. vietnamensis, and A. maximus, all from North Vietnam, and A. flavomarginatus from Malaysia. The new species are incorporated into the most recent key to the genus in Baehr (2012). © 2014, Verlag dr Friedrich Pfeil. All rights reserved.

A new subspecies of the south-eastern Australian psydrine species Mecyclothorax punctatus (Sloane) is described from south-western Australia: M. punctatus peckorum, subspec. nov. Male and female genitalia of the new taxon are figured, and a key is provided for the three taxa of the punctatus group of the genus Mecyclothorax Sharp. © 2016, Verlag dr Friedrich Pfeil. All rights reserved.

Haszprunar G.,SNSB Zoologische Staatssammlung Munich
ZooKeys | Year: 2014

A compilation of all supra- and (infra-) specific taxa of extant and fossil Valvatidae, a group of freshwater operculate snails, is provided, including taxa initially described in this family and subsequently classified in other families, as well as names containing errors or misspellings. The extensive reference list is directly linked to the available electronic source (digital view or pdf-download) of the respective papers. © Gerhard Haszprunar.

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