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Van Dam M.H.,SNSB Zoological State Collection | Laufa R.,University of Papua New Guinea | Riedel A.,State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe
ZooKeys | Year: 2016

The hyperdiverse genus Trigonopterus has its center of diversity in Melanesia, but only a single species is recorded from the Bismarck Archipelago to date. Here we describe four new species from the island of New Britain: T. chewbacca sp. n., T. obsidianus sp. n., T. puncticollis sp. n. and T. silaliensis sp. n. We provide cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) sequences of the new species and a key to all five species known from the Bismarck Archipelago. © Matthew H. Van Dam et al.


Riedel A.,Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe | Tanzler R.,SNSB Zoological State Collection | Balke M.,SNSB Zoological State Collection | Balke M.,GeoBio Center Munich | And 2 more authors.
ZooKeys | Year: 2014

The genus Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 is highly diverse in Melanesia. Only one species, Trigonopterus amphoralis Marshall, 1925 was so far recorded West of Wallace’s Line (Eastern Sumatra). Based on focused field-work the fauna from Sundaland (Sumatra, Java, Bali, Palawan) and the Lesser Sunda Islands (Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores) is here revised. We redescribe T. amphoralis Marshall and describe an additional 98 new species: T. acuminatus sp. n., T. aeneomicans sp. n., T. alaspurwensis sp. n., T. allopatricus sp. n., T. allotopus sp. n., T. angulicollis sp. n., T. argopurensis sp. n., T. arjunensis sp. n., T. asper sp. n., T. attenboroughi sp. n., T. baliensis sp. n., T. batukarensis sp. n., T. bawangensis sp. n., T. binodulus sp. n., T. bornensis sp. n., T. cahyoi sp. n., T. costipennis sp. n., T. cuprescens sp. n., T. cupreus sp. n., T. dacrycarpi sp. n., T. delapan sp. n., T. dentipes sp. n., T. diengensis sp. n., T. dimorphus sp. n., T. disruptus sp. n., T. dua sp. n., T. duabelas sp. n., T. echinatus sp. n., T. empat sp. n., T. enam sp. n., T. fissitarsis sp. n., T. florensis sp. n., T. foveatus sp. n., T. fulgidus sp. n., T. gedensis sp. n., T. halimunensis sp. n., T. honjensis sp. n., T. ijensis sp. n., T. javensis sp. n., T. kalimantanensis sp. n., T. kintamanensis sp. n., T. klatakanensis sp. n., T. lampungensis sp. n., T. latipes sp. n., T. lima sp. n., T. lombokensis sp. n., T. merubetirensis sp. n., T. mesehensis sp. n., T. micans sp. n., T. misellus sp. n., T. palawanensis sp. n., T. pangandaranensis sp. n., T. paraflorensis sp. n., T. pararugosus sp. n., T. parasumbawensis sp. n., T. pauxillus sp. n., T. payungensis sp. n., T. porcatus sp. n., T. pseudoflorensis sp. n., T. pseudosumbawensis sp. n., T. punctatoseriatus sp. n., T. ranakensis sp. n., T. relictus sp. n., T. rinjaniensis sp. n., T. roensis sp. n., T. rugosostriatus sp. n., T. rugosus sp. n., T. rutengensis sp. n., T. saltator sp. n., T. santubongensis sp. n., T. sasak sp. n., T. satu sp. n., T. schulzi sp. n., T. sebelas sp. n., T. sembilan sp. n., T. sepuluh sp. n., T. seriatus sp. n., T. serratifemur sp. n., T. setifer sp. n., T. silvestris sp. n., T. singkawangensis sp. n., T. singularis sp. n., T. sinuatus sp. n., T. squalidus sp. n., T. sumatrensis sp. n., T. sumbawensis sp. n., T. sundaicus sp. n., T. suturalis sp. n., T. syarbis sp. n., T. telagensis sp. n., T. tepalensis sp. n., T. tiga sp. n., T. trigonopterus sp. n., T. tujuh sp. n., T. ujungkulonensis sp. n., T. variolosus sp. n., T. vulcanicus sp. n., T. wallacei sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in charge, Alexander Riedel. Most species belong to the litter fauna of primary wet evergreen forests. This habitat has become highly fragmented in the study area and many of its remnants harbor endemic species. Conservation measures should be intensified, especially in smaller and less famous sites to minimize the number of species threatened by extinction. © Alexander Riedel et al.


Riedel A.,Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe SMNK | Tanzler R.,SNSB Zoological State Collection | Pons J.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Suhardjono Y.R.,Indonesian Institute of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2016

The monophyly of the highly diverse weevil subfamily Cryptorhynchinae is tested with a dataset of 203 taxa representing 159 genera of Curculionoidea, 105 of them Cryptorhynchinae s.l. We construct a phylogeny based on an alignment of 5523 bp, consisting of fragments from two mitochondrial genes (two fragments of COI, 16S) and seven nuclear genes (ArgK, CAD, EF1α, enolase, H4, 18S, 28S). Analyses of maximum likelihood and Bayes inference recovered largely congruent results. Groups with different morphology of the rostral furrow (e.g. Aedemonini, Camptorhinini, Cryptorhynchini, Ithyporini) are not closely related to each other. However, most taxa with a mesosternal receptacle are monophyletic and here defined as Cryptorhynchinae s.s., comprising Cryptorhynchini, Gasterocercini, Torneumatini and Psepholacini, but also Arachnopodini and Idopelma Faust. The genus Phyrdenus LeConte is excluded from Cryptorhynchinae and transferred to Conotrachelini of Molytinae. Thus defined, the group still comprises several thousand species with centres of its diversity in South America and Australia. The early lineages we find in America and the Palearctic, while the extremely diverse faunas of Australia and neighbouring islands mainly belong to a more recent, species-rich radiation. This also includes a clade comprising the majority of litter-inhabiting species of New Zealand and the genus Miocalles Pascoe. Flightlessness was attained repeatedly and resulted in convergent evolution of a similar habitus in different zoogeographic regions, mainly exhibited by the polyphyletic genus Acalles Schoenherr. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.


Michat M.C.,University of Buenos Aires | Alarie Y.,Laurentian University | Jia F.,Sun Yat Sen University | Xu S.,Shaanxi Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

The second- and third instar larvae of the cliff water beetle Aspidytes wrasei Balke, Ribera & Beutel, 2003 are studied for the first time with special emphasis on morphometry and chaetotaxy. A review of the characters useful in the identification of larvae of Aspidytes Ribera, Beutel, Balke & Vogler, 2002 is presented. Confirming previous findings, larvae of this genus are unique within Hydradephaga in the dorsally oriented spiracles on the abdominal segment VIII of instars II and III. The inclusion of Aspidytidae within the superfamily Dytiscoidea is reinforced by the following putative synapomorphies: presence of pore PAp, proximal insertion of pore ANg, apical or subapical insertion of seta MX8, presence of pore LAd, and distal insertion of seta CO6. Larvae of A. wrasei differ from those of A. niobe Ribera, Beutel, Balke & Vogler, 2002 in several significant characters that may indicate that both species have a long history of independent evolution. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.


Tanzler R.,SNSB Zoological State Collection | Tanzler R.,Indonesian Institute of Sciences | Tanzler R.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Toussaint E.F.,SNSB Zoological State Collection | And 11 more authors.
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2014

The fauna of Bali, situated immediately west of Wallace's Line, is supposedly of recent Javanese origin and characterized by low levels of endemicity. In flightless Trigonopterus weevils, however, we find 100% endemism for the eight species here reported for Bali. Phylogeographic analyses show extensive in situ differentiation, including a local radiation of five species. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny and ancestral area reconstruction of Indo-Malayan-Melanesian species reveals a complex colonization pattern, where the three Balinese lineages all arrived from the East, i.e. all of them transgressed Wallace's Line. Although East Java possesses a rich fauna of Trigonopterus, no exchange can be observed with Bali. We assert that the biogeographic picture of Bali has been dominated by the influx of mobile organisms from Java, but different relationships may be discovered when flightless invertebrates are studied. Our results highlight the importance of in-depth analyses of spatial patterns of biodiversity.


Tanzler R.,SNSB Zoological State Collection | Toussaint E.F.A.,SNSB Zoological State Collection | Suhardjono Y.R.,Indonesian Institute of Sciences | Balke M.,SNSB Zoological State Collection | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

The fauna of Bali, situated immediately west of Wallace's Line, is supposedly of recent Javanese origin and characterized by low levels of endemicity. In flightless Trigonopterus weevils, however, we find 100% endemism for the eight species here reported for Bali. Phylogeographic analyses show extensive in situ differentiation, including a local radiation of five species. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny and ancestral area reconstruction of Indo-Malayan-Melanesian species reveals a complex colonization pattern, where the three Balinese lineages all arrived from the East, i.e. all of them transgressed Wallace's Line. Although East Java possesses a rich fauna of Trigonopterus, no exchange can be observed with Bali. We assert that the biogeographic picture of Bali has been dominated by the influx of mobile organisms from Java, but different relationships may be discovered when flightless invertebrates are studied. Our results highlight the importance of in-depth analyses of spatial patterns of biodiversity. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Moriniere J.,SNSB Zoological State Collection | Michat M.C.,University of Buenos Aires | Jach M.A.,Naturhistorisches Museum Wien | Bergsten J.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | And 3 more authors.
Cladistics | Year: 2015

Anisomeriini diving beetles contain only two enigmatic species, representing a remarkable disjunction between the Pacific Juan Fernández Islands (Anisomeria bistriata) and the South Atlantic Tristan da Cunha Archipelago (Senilites tristanicola). They belong to the Colymbetinae, which contain 140 species worldwide. Here we aim to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the Anisomerinii and use > 9000 bp DNA sequence data from 13 fragments of 12 loci for a comprehensive sampling of Colymbetinae species. Analyses under different optimization criteria converge on very similar topologies, and show unambiguously that Anisomeria bistriata and Senilites tristanicola belong to the Neotropical Rhantus signatus species group, a comparatively recent clade within Colymbetinae. Anisomeriini therefore are synonomized with Colymbetini and both species are transferred to Rhantus accordingly, resulting in secondary homonymy of Rhantus bistriatus (Brullé, 1835) with Rhantus bistriatus (Bergsträsser, 1778). We propose the replacement name Rhantus selkirki Jäch, Balke & Michat nom. nov. for the Juan Fernández species. Presence of these species on remote islands is therefore not relictary, but the result of more recent range expansions out of mainland South America. Finally, we suggest that Carabdytini should be synonymized with Colymbetini. Our study underpins the Hennigian principle that a natural classification can be derived only from the search for shared apomorphies between species, not from differences. © The Willi Hennig Society 2014.


Michat M.C.,University of Buenos Aires | Alarie Y.,Laurentian University | Hendrich L.,SNSB Zoological State Collection
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

The mature larva of the squeak beetle Hygrobia nigra (Clark, 1862) (Paelobiidae) is studied for the first time based on detailed descriptions and illustrations of selected structures, with special emphasis on morphometry and chaetotaxy. A key for the identification of mature larvae of four of the six species of Hygrobia Latreille, 1804 known worldwide is presented. The phylogenetic relationships of the species are analyzed based on a cladistic analysis of a combined data set including larval and adult characters. Hygrobia nigra shares with the other known species of the genus several larval apomorphies including the presence of paramedian lip-like lobes on the epipharynx, a well-developed gula, gills on thoracic and first three abdominal sterna, and the maxillary stipites inserted into submental pouches, and is unique in the presence of a larger number of secondary setae on the metacoxa. The presence of a compact group of minute sensilla in the place where the galea is commonly located suggests that members of Hygrobia lost the galea, a condition independently evolved in some dytiscid lineages. The Australian species form a well-supported clade characterized by the presence of a short nasale, few-er natatory setae on the metatibia, and a marked shortening of the antennal sensorial appendage and the last abdominal segment. However, no larval characters were discovered to resolve relationships within that clade. The Palearctic H. her-manni (Fabricius, 1775) lacks a distinct nasale and is resolved as sister to the clade formed by the Australian species. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.


Toussaint E.F.A.,University of Kansas | Hendrich L.,SNSB Zoological State Collection | Escalona H.E.,Center for Molecular Biodiversity Research | Porch N.,Deakin University | And 2 more authors.
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2016

The evolution of a secondary terrestrial lifestyle in diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) has never been analysed in a phylogenetic framework before. Here we study Terradessus caecus Watts, a terrestrial species of the subfamily Hydroporinae endemic to Australia. We infer its phylogenetic placement using Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood methods based on a multilocus molecular dataset. We also investigate the divergence time estimates of this lineage using a Bayesian relaxed clock approach. Finally, we infer ancestral ecological preferences using a likelihood approach. We recover T. caecus nested in the genus Paroster Sharp with strong support. Therefore, we establish a synonymy for both species of Terradessus with Paroster: Paroster caecus (Watts) n.comb. and Paroster anophthalmus (Brancucci & Monteith) n.comb. Paroster is an endemic Australian genus that has a remarkable number of subterranean species in underground aquifers with highly derived morphologies. Our results highlight one of the most remarkable radiations of aquatic beetles with independent ecological pathways likely linked to palaeoclimatic disruptions in the Neogene. Paroster caecus (Watts) n.comb. originated from a mid-Miocene split following the onset of an aridification episode that has been ongoing to the present day. The deep changes in ecological communities in association with the drying-out of palaeodrainage systems might have pushed this lineage to colonize a new niche in terrestrial habitats. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

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