SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie

München, Germany

SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie

München, Germany
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Heinrichs J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Feldberg K.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Muller P.,University of Hamburg | Schafer-Verwimp A.,Mittlere Letten 11 | And 4 more authors.
Cretaceous Research | Year: 2017

An inclusion in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar is described as a new fossil species in the extant liverwort genus Frullania. The name Frullania pinnata is proposed for the taxon that is characterized by entire underleaves paired with a conspicuous pinnate branching pattern, two distinctive and stable morphological features. Entire underleaves are known in several extant Frullania species but had not previously been documented in Frullania in amber. The combination of morphological characters in this new fossil species is unknown in any crown group lineage of Frullania, and may very well represent a stem lineage element of the genus. This discovery is important because it expands our understanding of the diversity of Frullaniaceae in the Burmese amber forest as well as important ramifications for the phylogenetic reconstruction of extant Frullania lineages. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

The fossil record from the Carpathian area plays a key role for the understanding of the processes leading to the faunal interchanges between western Europe and Asia Minor during the late part of the Middle Miocene. Important mammal successions are now available from the Central Paratethys, especially Hungary and Romania. Here, we present the current state-of-the-art of the ongoing research concerning these faunas, especially small mammals and herpetofauna. We underscore the relevance of the Middle to earliest Late Miocene fossil record from these countries for chrono(bio)stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental studies at the Eurasian scale. © 2016 Académie des sciences

Sferco E.,Laboratorio Of Paleontologia Evolutiva Of Vertebrados | Sferco E.,National University of Cordoba | Lopez-Arbarello A.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Maria Baez A.,Laboratorio Of Paleontologia Evolutiva Of Vertebrados
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2015

The teleosts of the Late Jurassic Almada Fauna (Cañadón Calcáreo Formation) from Patagonia have been known for decades, but their taxonomic assignment has remained problematic. Two teleost species were thought to be represented in these lacustrine deposits: †Tharrhias feruglioi and †Luisiella inexcutata. In recent years, numerous complete and excellently preserved specimens have been collected, justifying revision of all available material. After a detailed anatomical study, we conclude that only one species of teleost is present in this fauna. †Tharrhias feruglioi and †L. inexcutata are synonyms and represent a single species, and due to the erroneous referral to the genus †Tharrhias, which designates a different fish, the new combination †Luisiella feruglioi is proposed. This study has revealed great morphological variability, which can be explained as intraspecific variability (ontogenetic and individual) as discussed herein. The overall morphology of †L. feruglioi resembles that of basal teleosts. In particular, †L. feruglioi is intriguingly similar to †Cavenderichthys talbragarensis from the continental Late Jurassic Talbragar Beds in Australia, owing to the presence of features not commonly found in known basal teleosts (hyomandibular bone with preopercular process, lower jaw with deep coronoid process and lacking a leptolepid notch in the dentary, and first uroneural anteriorly reaching the second preural centrum) and probably derived features such as a preopercular canal with few simple tubules. The resemblance between the Almada and Talbragar faunas has been recently proposed in reference to the coccolepidid species present in both Gondwanan faunas and is here discussed regarding the anatomical similarities shown by teleosts. © 2015 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Aiglstorfer M.,University of Tübingen | Aiglstorfer M.,Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment | Rossner G.E.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Rossner G.E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 3 more authors.
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2014

One of the rare records of a rich ruminant fauna of late Middle Miocene age (Sarmatian sensu stricto; 12.2-12.0 Ma) was discovered at the Gratkorn locality (Styria, Austria). It comprises, besides Micromeryx flourensianus, ?Hispanomeryx sp., Euprox furcatus, Palaeomerycidae gen. et sp. indet., and Tethytragus sp., one of the oldest records of Dorcatherium naui. Gratkorn specimens of the latter species are in metric and morphologic accordance (e.g. Selenodont teeth, bicuspid p2, non-fusion of malleolus lateralis and tibia) with type material from Eppelsheim (Germany) and conspecific material from Atzelsdorf (Austria), and do not show an intermediate morphology between Late Miocene Dorcatherium naui and Middle Miocene Dorcatherium crassum, thus enforcing the clear separation of the two species. It furthermore confirms the assignation of Dorcatherium naui to a selenodont lineage (together with Dorcatherium guntianum) distinct from a bunoselenodont lineage (including Dorcatherium crassum). The record of ?Hispanomeryx sp. is the first of this genus in Central Europe. While Tethytragus sp. could also be a new bovid representative for the Sarmatian of Central Europe, Micromeryx flourensianus and Euprox furcatus are well-known taxa in the Middle Miocene of Central Europe, but comprise their first records from Styria. Morphological data from this work in combination with isotopic measurements (δ18OCO3, δ13C; Aiglstorfer et al. 2014a, this issue) indicate a niche partitioning for the ruminants from Gratkorn with subcanopy browsing (Euprox furcatus), top canopy browsing (Tethytragus sp.) and even a certain amount of frugivory (Dorcatherium naui and Micromeryx flourensianus). © 2014 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Schlagintweit F.,Lerchenauerstr. 167 | Hladil J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Nose M.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Salerno C.,Lenzhalde 70
Geologia Croatica | Year: 2013

From Palaeozoic (mainly Devonian) shallow-water carbonates, spherical to irregular shaped microfossils with thin, apparently homogeneous or perforate micritic walls are widely reported. They are classically referred either to uniloc-ular parathuramminid foraminifera, algae incertae sedis or calcispheres (e.g., Bisphaera, Cribrosphaeroides, Uslo-nia, Vermiporella myna, Irregularina). Due to their morphology and microstructural features, they are interpreted here as possibly belonging to Thaumatoporella PIA, a widespread Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic taxon of incertae sedis showing a remarkably high morphological variability. In analogy to Mesozoic thaumatoporellaceans, Bisphaera ma-levkensis BIRINA is interpreted as the cyst (i.e.= resting) stage of forms ascribed to different genera, i.e., Cribro-sphaeroides, Uslonia and Vermiporella (here: Vermiporella myna WRAY). Note that in the Mesozoic many taxa were also synonymized with Thaumatoporella: Polygonella ELLIOTT, Lithoporella elliotti (EMBERGER), Messopota-mella DRAGASTAN et al., Vermiporella crisiae DRAGASTAN et al., Micritosphaera SCOTT. This new interpretation, based on material from the Devonian of W-Germany and the Czech Republic, leads to taxonomic reassessment as Thaumatoporella? malevkensis (BIRINA) nov. comb. As a consequence of our interpretation, the rather long Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic (Anisian? to Lutetian) record of thaumatoporellaceans is supposed to be signifcantly larger than formerly assumed. The possible gap of no records of thaumatoporellaceans between the Middle Carboniferous and the Lower Triassic cannot substantially be argued at the moment (Lazarus effect of one taxon?; two homeomorphic but taxonomically different taxa).

Rossner G.E.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Rossner G.E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Heissig K.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Heissig K.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Swiss Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2013

Seven hitherto unpublished Dorcatherium guntianum teeth from the Early Miocene of Germany are described. Morphology and size of the teeth are documented in detail and taxonomic affiliation is assessed based on comparisons to type materials of European tragulids. The fossils represent one of the earliest European Dorcatherium records and the oldest unequivocal evidence of D. guntianum from Germany. A review of the European Dorcatherium occurrence pattern suggests that a bunoselenodont and a selenodont lineage immigrated into Europe simultaneously from the East or Southeast, and corroborates the interpretation of the genus as being diphyletic. Moreover, our data add support to immigration scenarios that have been linked with the emerging freshwater wetlands, which formed as a result of the regression in the Western Paratethys. © 2013 Swiss Geological Society.

Lopez-Arbarello A.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Schroder K.M.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie
Palaontologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2014

The fishes of the genus Aspidorhynchus (Aspidorhynchidae) are among the most abundant predators in the palaeolagoons of the Solnhofen archipelago (Late Jurassic, southern Germany). They have been known since the end to the nineteenth century and the last revision of the genus was published more than 20 years ago. During these last two decades, numerous complete and excellently preserved specimens have been collected. The high morphological diversity shown by the new material made a new revision of these fishes necessary. This new taxonomic revision led us to revalidate the species A. ornatissimus Agassiz, 1834, which has hitherto been considered a junior synonym of the type species of the genus, A. acutirostris (Blainville, 1818), as well as to recognize high intraspecific variation in the latter species. These results helped to improve the distinction and, thus, the diagnoses of A. acutirostris,A. ornatissimus, and A. sanzenbacheri Brito and Ebert, 2009, which are the three valid species of this genus in the Solnhofen archipelago. We have been able to explain most of the intraspecific diversity of A. acutirostris by means of patterns of ontogenetic variation that encompass most of the other nominal species, thus largely reflecting early taxonomic hypotheses. Furthermore, the detailed morphological study led us to the recognition of some important anatomical structures previously unknown for aspidorhynchids: a connection between the temporal, infraorbital and supraorbital sensory canals in the frontal bone, the presence of an Y-shaped antorbital bone, and the presence of an interoperculum. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lopez-Arbarello A.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Lopez-Arbarello A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Wencker L.C.M.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie
Palaontologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2016

Ginglymodian fishes are abundant and diverse in Upper Jurassic limestones of Germany, but rarer in coeval sequences in France. Only a single ginglymodian is so far known from the Tithonian at Canjuers. Our study of this excellently preserved specimen revealed that it represents a new taxon †Occitanichthys canjuersensis gen. et sp. nov., which is retrieved in a cladistic analysis as a member of the semionotiform family †Callipurbeckiidae. Additionally, two specimens among fishes from the Middle Purbeck Beds at Swanage referred to †Callipurbeckia minor were found to represent the new callipurbeckiid taxon. The new taxon inhabited the epicontinental seas that covered most of Europe connecting the Tethys with the North Atlantic during Jurassic and Cretaceous, and its minimum biochron ranges from the Early Tithonian to the Early Cretaceous. After incorporation of the new and recently described taxa and the re-evaluation and addition of morphological characters, our cladistic analysis recovered a somewhat different pattern of relationships compared with previous phylogenetic hypotheses for Ginglymodi. Mainly, in the new topology, a monophyletic †Lepidotidae includes the Jurassic genera †Lepidotes and †Scheenstia, and the Tithonian–Berriasian †Camerichthys from Spain, which has been classified in †Semionotiformes. Among semionotiforms, our results retrieved the family †Macrosemiidae as the sister group of †Semionotidae occupying a more distal position within the clade †Semionotiformes than previously thought. © 2016 Paläontologische Gesellschaft

Clauss M.,University of Zürich | Rossner G.E.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Rossner G.E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Rossner G.E.,GeoBio Center
Annales Zoologici Fennici | Year: 2014

The omasum of pecoran ruminants (which is absent in tragulids) and shorter gestation periods in non-giraffid crown pecorans (as opposed to giraffids) could represent cases of key innovations that caused disparity in species diversity in extant ruminants. Literature suggests that the different ruminant groups inhabited similar niche spectra at different times, supporting the 'increased fitness' interpretation where a key innovation does not mainly open new niches, but allows more efficient use of existing ones. In this respect, we explored data on fossil species diversity of Afro-Eurasian ruminants from the Neogene and Quaternary. Tragulid and giraffid diversity first increased during the Early/Middle Miocene with subsequent declines, whereas bovid and cervid diversity increased distinctively. Our resulting narrative, combining digestive physiology, life history and the fossil record, thus provides an explanation for the sequence of diversity patterns in Old-World ruminants. © Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2014. © 2014 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board.

Barmann E.V.,University of Cambridge | Barmann E.V.,Leibniz Institute For Evolutions Und Biodiversitatsforschung | Wronski T.,Zoological Society of London | Wronski T.,King Khalid Wildlife Research Center | And 12 more authors.
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2013

Gazella is one of the most species-rich genera within horned ruminants. Despite overall similarity in body size and morphology, gazelles show variability in coloration and horn morphology. Unfortunately, however, species differentiation based on these characters, or on discrete skull characters, is very difficult due to high intraspecific variability. Furthermore, most species have fragmented and allopatric distributions, so that species boundaries were hard to define in the past. Mitochondrial DNA sequences have proven useful for investigating gazelle taxonomy in recent years, but especially for old museum material, i.e. type specimens, destructive sampling is often impossible. We provide a comprehensive morphometric framework for the genus Gazella based on linear skull measurements reconciled with results from molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the largest dataset available so far. In particular for males, the skull morphology shows interspecific differences concurrent with DNA data and provides a reliable tool for species identification. Based on morphometric data we synonymize G.karamii with G.marica, and confirm the identification of the G.arabica and G.a. rueppelli type skulls from analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London.

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