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Schlagintweit F.,Lerchenauerstr. 167 | Hladil J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Nose M.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Salerno C.,Lenzhalde 70
Geologia Croatica | Year: 2013

From Palaeozoic (mainly Devonian) shallow-water carbonates, spherical to irregular shaped microfossils with thin, apparently homogeneous or perforate micritic walls are widely reported. They are classically referred either to uniloc-ular parathuramminid foraminifera, algae incertae sedis or calcispheres (e.g., Bisphaera, Cribrosphaeroides, Uslo-nia, Vermiporella myna, Irregularina). Due to their morphology and microstructural features, they are interpreted here as possibly belonging to Thaumatoporella PIA, a widespread Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic taxon of incertae sedis showing a remarkably high morphological variability. In analogy to Mesozoic thaumatoporellaceans, Bisphaera ma-levkensis BIRINA is interpreted as the cyst (i.e.= resting) stage of forms ascribed to different genera, i.e., Cribro-sphaeroides, Uslonia and Vermiporella (here: Vermiporella myna WRAY). Note that in the Mesozoic many taxa were also synonymized with Thaumatoporella: Polygonella ELLIOTT, Lithoporella elliotti (EMBERGER), Messopota-mella DRAGASTAN et al., Vermiporella crisiae DRAGASTAN et al., Micritosphaera SCOTT. This new interpretation, based on material from the Devonian of W-Germany and the Czech Republic, leads to taxonomic reassessment as Thaumatoporella? malevkensis (BIRINA) nov. comb. As a consequence of our interpretation, the rather long Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic (Anisian? to Lutetian) record of thaumatoporellaceans is supposed to be signifcantly larger than formerly assumed. The possible gap of no records of thaumatoporellaceans between the Middle Carboniferous and the Lower Triassic cannot substantially be argued at the moment (Lazarus effect of one taxon?; two homeomorphic but taxonomically different taxa).

Alberti M.,University of Kiel | Nutzel A.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Fursich F.T.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Pandey D.K.,University of Rajasthan
Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie - Abhandlungen | Year: 2013

A collection of 93 Late Jurassic gastropods from the Kachchh Basin in western India represents 23 species. The material contains new records, such as Purpurina sp., as well as five new species: Bathrotomaria densireticulata, Bathrotomaria depressa, Bathrotomaria gangtaensis, Neritopsis indica, and Eucyclus tramauensis. Additional unnamed species occur, but since they are represented only by single and/or fragmentary specimens in the present collection, they have been left in open nomenclature. The majority of the described gastropods are from the Oxfordian part of the Jurassic succession of the Kachchh Basin. The fauna is strongly dominated by pleurotomariids and resembles that of palaeogeographically neighbouring areas (especially Madagascar) in composition. Most of the occurring genera are wide-ranging and known from localities throughout the Tethyan Ocean, but a strong endemism at the species level seems evident. © 2013 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.

Clauss M.,University of Zurich | Rossner G.E.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Rossner G.E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Rossner G.E.,GeoBio Center
Annales Zoologici Fennici | Year: 2014

The omasum of pecoran ruminants (which is absent in tragulids) and shorter gestation periods in non-giraffid crown pecorans (as opposed to giraffids) could represent cases of key innovations that caused disparity in species diversity in extant ruminants. Literature suggests that the different ruminant groups inhabited similar niche spectra at different times, supporting the 'increased fitness' interpretation where a key innovation does not mainly open new niches, but allows more efficient use of existing ones. In this respect, we explored data on fossil species diversity of Afro-Eurasian ruminants from the Neogene and Quaternary. Tragulid and giraffid diversity first increased during the Early/Middle Miocene with subsequent declines, whereas bovid and cervid diversity increased distinctively. Our resulting narrative, combining digestive physiology, life history and the fossil record, thus provides an explanation for the sequence of diversity patterns in Old-World ruminants. © Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2014. © 2014 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board.

Aiglstorfer M.,University of Tubingen | Aiglstorfer M.,Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment | Rossner G.E.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Rossner G.E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 3 more authors.
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2014

One of the rare records of a rich ruminant fauna of late Middle Miocene age (Sarmatian sensu stricto; 12.2-12.0 Ma) was discovered at the Gratkorn locality (Styria, Austria). It comprises, besides Micromeryx flourensianus, ?Hispanomeryx sp., Euprox furcatus, Palaeomerycidae gen. et sp. indet., and Tethytragus sp., one of the oldest records of Dorcatherium naui. Gratkorn specimens of the latter species are in metric and morphologic accordance (e.g. Selenodont teeth, bicuspid p2, non-fusion of malleolus lateralis and tibia) with type material from Eppelsheim (Germany) and conspecific material from Atzelsdorf (Austria), and do not show an intermediate morphology between Late Miocene Dorcatherium naui and Middle Miocene Dorcatherium crassum, thus enforcing the clear separation of the two species. It furthermore confirms the assignation of Dorcatherium naui to a selenodont lineage (together with Dorcatherium guntianum) distinct from a bunoselenodont lineage (including Dorcatherium crassum). The record of ?Hispanomeryx sp. is the first of this genus in Central Europe. While Tethytragus sp. could also be a new bovid representative for the Sarmatian of Central Europe, Micromeryx flourensianus and Euprox furcatus are well-known taxa in the Middle Miocene of Central Europe, but comprise their first records from Styria. Morphological data from this work in combination with isotopic measurements (δ18OCO3, δ13C; Aiglstorfer et al. 2014a, this issue) indicate a niche partitioning for the ruminants from Gratkorn with subcanopy browsing (Euprox furcatus), top canopy browsing (Tethytragus sp.) and even a certain amount of frugivory (Dorcatherium naui and Micromeryx flourensianus). © 2014 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lopez-Arbarello A.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Lopez-Arbarello A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Wencker L.C.M.,SNSB Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie
Palaontologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2016

Ginglymodian fishes are abundant and diverse in Upper Jurassic limestones of Germany, but rarer in coeval sequences in France. Only a single ginglymodian is so far known from the Tithonian at Canjuers. Our study of this excellently preserved specimen revealed that it represents a new taxon †Occitanichthys canjuersensis gen. et sp. nov., which is retrieved in a cladistic analysis as a member of the semionotiform family †Callipurbeckiidae. Additionally, two specimens among fishes from the Middle Purbeck Beds at Swanage referred to †Callipurbeckia minor were found to represent the new callipurbeckiid taxon. The new taxon inhabited the epicontinental seas that covered most of Europe connecting the Tethys with the North Atlantic during Jurassic and Cretaceous, and its minimum biochron ranges from the Early Tithonian to the Early Cretaceous. After incorporation of the new and recently described taxa and the re-evaluation and addition of morphological characters, our cladistic analysis recovered a somewhat different pattern of relationships compared with previous phylogenetic hypotheses for Ginglymodi. Mainly, in the new topology, a monophyletic †Lepidotidae includes the Jurassic genera †Lepidotes and †Scheenstia, and the Tithonian–Berriasian †Camerichthys from Spain, which has been classified in †Semionotiformes. Among semionotiforms, our results retrieved the family †Macrosemiidae as the sister group of †Semionotidae occupying a more distal position within the clade †Semionotiformes than previously thought. © 2016 Paläontologische Gesellschaft

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