Guery J.-F.,SNPE Materiaux Energetiques |
Chang I.-S.,The Aerospace Corporation |
Shimada T.,Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency |
Boury D.,SNECMA |
And 8 more authors.
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2010
For the last 50 years solid propulsion has successfully created a multitude of small launchers and many first stages or boosters for heavy launchers with low risk, high performance, competitive cost, superb storability, and "instant" readiness in many countries. Technical support for these successes arose from simple designs, very high thrust levels, and low development and operation costs/risks. The first solid propulsion roadmap based on these foundations and rational projections was published in 2000 [A. Davenas, D. Boury, M. Calabro, B. D'Andrea, A. McDonald, Solid propulsion for space applications: a roadmap, in: 51st International Astronautical Congress, paper IAA-00-IAA.3.3.02, October 2000]. Moreover, subsequent information supports its enabling technologies (high strength composite cases, energetic material processing based on continuous mixing, low density insulation, reduced actuator energy requirements, and advanced detailed simulations) and applications (first stages, strap-on, add-ons, small launchers, and niche space applications). Missions currently devoted to solid propulsion and plans for present and future launchers and exploration mission developments in the USA, Japan, and Europe are sketched and targeted improvements, and potential breakthroughs are discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin F.,Airbus |
Chapelle A.,Airbus |
Orlandi O.,SNPE Materiaux Energetiques |
Yvart P.,SNPE Materiaux Energetiques
46th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit | Year: 2010
In the framework of the ORPHEE (Original Research Project on Hybrid Engine in Europe) project co-funded between the EU, industries and universities, several promising applications based on the hybrid propulsion engines offering promising advantages like thrust performance, thrust modulation, re-ignition, versatility, simplicity, ecological impacts and safety have been defined. Mission analyses made by EADS ASTRIUM-Space Transportation, with objective assumptions for advanced hybrid fuels characteristics that will be consolidated subsequently within the ORPHEE project, allow selecting platforms for which the hybrid technology could favorably be implemented (propulsion system for landers, launchers upper stage...). For each platform, specifications regarding the hybrid engine (density, flow-rate, modulation ratio, specific impulse, mixture ratio, regression rate...) are given for the preliminary designs of the hybrid propulsive systems used in trajectory and missions analyses. At least, a preliminary trade-off realised between SNPE Matériaux Energétiques and ASTRIUM-ST concerning the most promising propellants couples is presented in order to orientate the next ORPHEE works. Copyright © 2010 by SNPE Matériaux Energétiques.
Boury D.,SNECMA |
Cloutet P.,SNPE Materiaux Energetiques
61st International Astronautical Congress 2010, IAC 2010 | Year: 2010
The European Launcher Family of the coming decade is based on Ariane 5, Soyuz and Vega systems covering a wide range of missions and performances. Nevertheless considering long development period and technology maturation phases regarding rocket propulsion activities, numerous studies have been performed during past years to define new launchers possibilities. Chemically propelled 'access to space' requires a very large thrust level during the take-off phase lasting some minutes. Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) overall behavior principle is well suited to such a propulsive mission requirement. Moreover the SRM propulsive performances are obtained with a high level of reliability and competitive costs when compared to other expendable systems. This paper presents an overview of possible launcher concepts based on solid propulsion summarizing studies performed since 2003 with the support of CNES (French Space Agency) by Snecma Propulsion Solide and SNPE Matériaux Energétiques. Three possible options for the lower stages are examined for a launcher devoted to GTO mission ranging from 4 to 7 tons and using a cryogenic propellant solution for the upper stage. The first option is a two stage design with a very large solid first stage. This configuration should limit the recurring cost due to the limited number of stages. Nevertheless these stages will need to present high performances in order for the launcher to reach the required payload mass. The second option is based on a modular approach using a 'basic' medium sized solid rocket motor for the lower stages. The motor size is defined to minimize the lower stages price. An ignition and jettisoning sequence is identified to optimize the launcher performance and minimize the number of motors. The third option is a classical three stage design with a large solid first stage and a medium solid second stage. Existing motors like A5-MPS and Vega P80 could be re-used to limit development cost following a Building Blocks approach. Strap-on motors can be added to extend the payload range. For each option, the general motor design and propulsive performances to achieve payload target are presented. When relevant, the impacts on the current industrial tool were assessed to precise what would be the necessary investments associated to this new productions. Some key solid propulsion technologies were also identified to optimize the cost of the solid propulsion stage. All these results will widely contribute to on-going studies regarding the Future European Launcher family of the 2020 decade.
Sainta Martin S.,CNRS Laboratory of Condensed Matter Chemistry, Bordeaux |
Marre S.,CNRS Laboratory of Condensed Matter Chemistry, Bordeaux |
Guionneau P.,CNRS Laboratory of Condensed Matter Chemistry, Bordeaux |
Cansell F.,CNRS Laboratory of Condensed Matter Chemistry, Bordeaux |
And 3 more authors.
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2010
HNIW or CL20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) is a nitramine, which is considered as the highest energetic molecular compound known to date, therefore, attracting increasing interest in propulsion applications. Additionally, CL20 is an interesting system for fundamental studies, exhibiting several polymorphs, which can behave as host lattices for trapping guest molecules. Herein, a new CL20 structure that contains inserted CO2 molecules is reported. A combination of Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and thermal analyses (thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry) was used to characterize this new material. Guess the guest: A new host-guest inclusion compound has been obtained through the exposure of energetic nitramine (CL20) organic crystals to condensed carbon dioxide (see picture). This new structure of CL20, which contains trapped CO2 molecules, was characterized by a combination of techniques. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Jacob G.,SNPE Materiaux Energetiques |
Herve G.,SNPE Materiaux Energetiques |
Alkorta I.,Polytechnic University of Valencia |
Elguero J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Journal of Molecular Structure | Year: 2010
Data for 12 nitro derivatives (benzenes, pyrroles, furazans and pyrazoles) are reported, of which some furazans and the three pyrazoles are new. These couplings, in the 9-18 Hz range, were compared with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. Although the agreement is not very good, several interesting consequences can be drawn: the value of the coupling constant is not related to the position in the ring nor to the torsion angle but the dimensionless parameter η. For large η (slow quadrupole relaxation) the triplets are observed while for small η (rapid quadrupole relaxation) a broad triplet or even a broad singlet is observed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carmicino C.,University of Naples Federico II |
Russo Sorge A.,University of Naples Federico II |
Orlandi O.,SNPE Materiaux Energetiques |
Blanchard H.,SNPE Materiaux Energetiques |
And 2 more authors.
47th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 2011 | Year: 2011
This paper presents the logic structure and the main purposes of the Operative Research Project on Hybrid Engine in Europe with particular attention to the involved experimental activity. In the framework of this program, new fuel formulations are analyzed to raise the regression rate required in some typical propulsion applications envisaged for a hybrid rocket system. A series of static firing tests have been carried out, in a subset of a wider test matrix, on a lab-scale hybrid engine to bridge the gap between the results from a small-scale burner and the ones which will be achieved from larger-scale engine demonstrators still to be developed. Gaseous oxygen and two different fuel compositions have been tested to assess the improvement in the regression rate deriving from HTPB fuels with additives. Pure HTPB as a baseline fuel and HTPB with nano-sized aluminum and magnesium hydride have been tested. The preliminary results are discussed. © 2011 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.