Snowdon Inc.

Monmouth Junction, NJ, United States

Snowdon Inc.

Monmouth Junction, NJ, United States
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Zang Q.,Johnson University | Zang Q.,Snowdon Inc. | Zang Q.,Rutgers University | Keire D.A.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 10 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Chemometric analysis of a set of one-dimensional (1D) 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data for heparin sodium active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) samples was employed to distinguish USP-grade heparin samples from those containing oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) contaminant and/or unacceptable levels of dermatan sulfate (DS) impurity. Three chemometric pattern recognition approaches were implemented: classification and regression tree (CART), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM). Heparin sodium samples from various manufacturers were analyzed in 2008 and 2009 by 1D 1H NMR, strong anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, and percent galactosamine in total hexosamine tests. Based on these data, the samples were divided into three groups: Heparin, DS∈≥∈1.0% and OSCS∈=∈0%; DS, DS∈>∈1.0% and OSCS∈=∈0%; and OSCS, OSCS∈>∈0% with any content of DS. Three data sets corresponding to different chemical shift regions (1.95-2.20, 3.10-5.70, and 1.95-5.70 ppm) were evaluated. While all three chemometric approaches were able to effectively model the data in the 1.95-2.20 ppm region, SVM was found to substantially outperform CART and ANN for data in the 3.10-5.70 ppm region in terms of classification success rate. A 100% prediction rate was frequently achieved for discrimination between heparin and OSCS samples. The majority of classification errors between heparin and DS involved cases where the DS content was close to the 1.0% DS borderline between the two classes. When these borderline samples were removed, nearly perfect classification results were attained. Satisfactory results were achieved when the resulting models were challenged by test samples containing blends of heparin APIs spiked with non-, partially, or fully oversulfated chondroitin sulfate A, heparan sulfate, or DS at the 1.0%, 5.0%, and 10.0% (w/w) levels. This study demonstrated that the combination of 1D 1H NMR spectroscopy with multivariate chemometric methods is a nonsubjective, statistics-based approach for heparin quality control and purity assessment that, once standardized, minimizes the need for expert analysts. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Zang Q.,Johnson University | Zang Q.,Snowdon Inc. | Zang Q.,Rutgers University | Keire D.A.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2011

Heparin is a naturally produced, heterogeneous compound consisting of variably sulfated and acetylated repeating disaccharide units. The structural complexity of heparin complicates efforts to assess the purity of the compound, especially when differentiating between similar glycosaminoglycans. Recently, heparin sodium contaminated with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate A (OSCS) has been associated with a rapid and acute onset of an anaphylactic reaction. In addition, naturally occurring dermatan sulfate (DS) was found to be present in these and other heparin samples as an impurity due to incomplete purification. The present study was undertaken to determine whether chemometric analysis of these NMR spectral data would be useful for discrimination between USP-grade samples of heparin sodium API and those deemed unacceptable based on their levels of DS, OSCS, or both. Several multivariate chemometric methods for clustering and classification were evaluated; specifically, principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and the k-nearest-neighbor (kNN) method. Data dimension reduction and variable selection techniques, implemented to avoid over-fitting the training set data, markedly improved the performance of the classification models. Under optimal conditions, a perfect classification (100% success rate) was attained on external test sets for the Heparin vs OSCS model. The predictive rates for the Heparin vs DS, Heparin vs [DS+OSCS], and Heparin vs DS vs OSCS models were 89%, 93%, and 90%, respectively. In most cases, misclassifications can be ascribed to the similarity in NMR chemical shifts of heparin and DS. Among the chemometric methods evaluated in this study, we found that the LDA models were superior to the PLS-DA and kNN models for classification. Taken together, the present results demonstrate the utility of chemometric methods when applied in combination with 1H NMR spectral analysis for evaluating the quality of heparin APIs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Zang Q.,Johnson University | Zang Q.,Snowdon Inc. | Zang Q.,Rutgers University | Keire D.A.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 7 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Heparin, a widely used anticoagulant primarily extracted from animal sources, contains varying amounts of galactosamine impurities. Currently, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monograph for heparin purity specifies that the weight percent of galactosamine (%Gal) may not exceed 1%. In the present study, multivariate regression (MVR) analysis of 1H NMR spectral data obtained from heparin samples was employed to build quantitative models for the prediction of %Gal. MVR analysis was conducted using four separate methods: multiple linear regression, ridge regression, partial least squares regression, and support vector regression (SVR). Genetic algorithms and stepwise selection methods were applied for variable selection. In each case, two separate prediction models were constructed: a global model based on dataset A which contained the full range (0-10%) of galactosamine in the samples and a local model based on the subset dataset B for which the galactosamine level (0-2%) spanned the 1% USP limit. All four regression methods performed equally well for dataset A with low prediction errors under optimal conditions, whereas SVR was clearly superior among the four methods for dataset B. The results from this study show that 1H NMR spectroscopy, already a USP requirement for the screening of contaminants in heparin, may offer utility as a rapid method for quantitative determination of %Gal in heparin samples when used in conjunction with MVR approaches. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Zang Q.,Johnson University | Zang Q.,Snowdon Inc. | Zang Q.,Rutgers University | Keire D.A.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 7 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

To differentiate heparin samples with varying amounts of dermatan sulfate (DS) impurities and oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) contaminants, proton NMR spectral data for heparin sodium active pharmaceutical ingredient samples from different manufacturers were analyzed using multivariate chemometric techniques. A total of 168 samples were divided into three groups: (a) Heparin, [DS] ≤ 1.0% and [OSCS] =0%; (b) DS, [DS] > 1.0% and [OSCS] =0%; (c) OSCS, [OSCS] >0% with any content of DS. The chemometric models were constructed and validated using two well-established methods: soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and unequal class modeling (UNEQ). While SIMCA modeling was conducted using the entire set of variables extracted from the NMR spectral data, UNEQ modeling was combined with variable reduction using stepwise linear discriminant analysis to comply with the requirement that the number of samples per class exceed the number of variables in the model by at least 3-fold. Comparison of the results from these two modeling approaches revealed that UNEQ had greater sensitivity (fewer false positives) while SIMCA had greater specificity (fewer false negatives). For Heparin, DS, and OSCS, respectively, the sensitivity was 78% (56/72), 74% (37/50), and 85% (39/46) from SIMCA modeling and 88% (63/72), 90% (45/50), and 91% (42/46) from UNEQ modeling. Importantly, the specificity of both the SIMCA and UNEQ models was 100% (46/46) for Heparin with respect to OSCS; no OSCS-containing sample was misclassified as Heparin. The specificity of the SIMCA model (45/50, or 90%) was superior to that of the UNEQ model (27/50, or 54%) for Heparin with respect to DS samples. However, the overall prediction ability of the UNEQ model (85%) was notably better than that of the SIMCA model (76%) for the Heparin vs DS vs OSCS classes. The models were challenged with blends of heparin spiked with nonsulfated, partially sulfated, or fully oversulfated chondroitin sulfate A, dermatan sulfate, or heparan sulfate at the 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 wt % levels. The results from the present study indicate that the combination of 1H NMR spectral data and class modeling techniques (viz., SIMCA and UNEQ) represents a promising strategy for assessing the quality of commercial heparin samples with respect to impurities and contaminants. The methodologies show utility for applications beyond heparin to other complex products. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Diller D.J.,Snowdon Inc. | Diller D.J.,CMD Bioscience | Connell N.D.,Rutgers University | Welsh W.J.,Rutgers University
Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design | Year: 2015

This report introduces a new ligand-based virtual screening tool called Avalanche that incorporates both shape- and feature-based comparison with three-dimensional (3D) alignment between the query molecule and test compounds residing in a chemical database. Avalanche proceeds in two steps. The first step is an extremely rapid shape/feature based comparison which is used to narrow the focus from potentially millions or billions of candidate molecules and conformations to a more manageable number that are then passed to the second step. The second step is a detailed yet still rapid 3D alignment of the remaining candidate conformations to the query conformation. Using the 3D alignment, these remaining candidate conformations are scored, re-ranked and presented to the user as the top hits for further visualization and evaluation. To provide further insight into the method, the results from two prospective virtual screens are presented which show the ability of Avalanche to identify hits from chemical databases that would likely be missed by common substructure-based or fingerprint-based search methods. The Avalanche method is extended to enable patent landscaping, i.e., structural refinements to improve the patentability of hits for deployment in drug discovery campaigns. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Ai N.,Zhejiang University | Wood R.D.,Snowdon Inc. | Welsh W.J.,Rutgers University
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: Drug repositioning strategies were employed to explore new therapeutic indications for existing drugs that may exhibit dual negative mGluR1/5 modulating activities as potential treatments for neuropathic pain.Method: A customized in silico-in vitro-in vivo drug repositioning scheme was assembled and implemented to search available drug libraries for compounds with dual mGluR1/5 antagonistic activities, that were then evaluated using in vitro functional assays and, for validated hits, in an established animal model for neuropathic pain.Results: Tizoxanide, the primary active metabolite of the FDA approved drug nitazoxanide, fit in silico pharmacophore models constructed for both mGluR1 and mGluR5. Subsequent calcium (Ca++) mobilization functional assays confirmed that tizoxanide exhibited appreciable antagonist activity for both mGluR1 and mGluR5 (IC50 = 1.8 μM and 1.2 μM, respectively). The in vivo efficacy of nitazoxanide administered by intraperitoneal injection was demonstrated in a rat model for neuropathic pain.Conclusion: The major aim of the present study was to demonstrate the utility of an in silico-in vitro-in vivo drug repositioning protocol to facilitate the repurposing of approved drugs for new therapeutic indications. As an example, this particular investigation successfully identified nitazoxanide and its metabolite tizoxanide as dual mGluR1/5 negative modulators. A key finding is the vital importance for drug screening libraries to include the structures of drug active metabolites, such as those emanating from prodrugs which are estimated to represent 5–7% of marketed drugs. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Ai N.,Zhejiang University | Wood R.D.,Snowdon Inc. | Yang E.,Snowdon Inc. | Welsh W.J.,Rutgers University
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2016

Purpose: Novel therapeutics are greatly needed that target specific pathological receptors and pathways involved in Neuropathic Pain (NP). Extending our previous work published in this Journal on Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) modulators, we now investigate the therapeutic potential of niclosamide in modulating aberrant glutamate transmission in NP. Method: Calcium mobilization assays and cross-receptor selectivity experiments are conducted to characterize the pharmacological activity of niclosamide. A focused series of niclosamide analogues is then prepared to elucidate key structural determinants that emerged from computational molecular modeling analysis on drug-receptor interactions. Finally, niclosamide and a carbamate derivative are studied to assess their efficacy in an NP-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia model in rats. Results: Niclosamide is a low-nanomolar allosteric antagonist of Group I mGluRs with high selectivity for Group I over homologous Group III mGluRs. The phenolic hydroxyl group of niclosamide forms a crucial hydrogen bond with mGluR1/5. Its bioactive coplanar conformation is further stabilized by the nitro substituent on the B ring and an intramolecular bond. Mechanical hyperalgesia in NP rats is reversed by niclosamide through three different dosing routes. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the salicylanilide class of compounds as potential treatments for NP. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


PubMed | Rutgers University, Snowdon Inc. and Zhejiang University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmaceutical research | Year: 2016

Novel therapeutics are greatly needed that target specific pathological receptors and pathways involved in Neuropathic Pain (NP). Extending our previous work published in this Journal on Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) modulators, we now investigate the therapeutic potential of niclosamide in modulating aberrant glutamate transmission in NP.Calcium mobilization assays and cross-receptor selectivity experiments are conducted to characterize the pharmacological activity of niclosamide. A focused series of niclosamide analogues is then prepared to elucidate key structural determinants that emerged from computational molecular modeling analysis on drug-receptor interactions. Finally, niclosamide and a carbamate derivative are studied to assess their efficacy in an NP-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia model in rats.Niclosamide is a low-nanomolar allosteric antagonist of Group I mGluRs with high selectivity for Group I over homologous Group III mGluRs. The phenolic hydroxyl group of niclosamide forms a crucial hydrogen bond with mGluR1/5. Its bioactive coplanar conformation is further stabilized by the nitro substituent on the B ring and an intramolecular bond. Mechanical hyperalgesia in NP rats is reversed by niclosamide through three different dosing routes.To our knowledge, this is the first report of the salicylanilide class of compounds as potential treatments for NP.


PubMed | Rutgers University and Snowdon Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of computer-aided molecular design | Year: 2015

This report introduces a new ligand-based virtual screening tool called Avalanche that incorporates both shape- and feature-based comparison with three-dimensional (3D) alignment between the query molecule and test compounds residing in a chemical database. Avalanche proceeds in two steps. The first step is an extremely rapid shape/feature based comparison which is used to narrow the focus from potentially millions or billions of candidate molecules and conformations to a more manageable number that are then passed to the second step. The second step is a detailed yet still rapid 3D alignment of the remaining candidate conformations to the query conformation. Using the 3D alignment, these remaining candidate conformations are scored, re-ranked and presented to the user as the top hits for further visualization and evaluation. To provide further insight into the method, the results from two prospective virtual screens are presented which show the ability of Avalanche to identify hits from chemical databases that would likely be missed by common substructure-based or fingerprint-based search methods. The Avalanche method is extended to enable patent landscaping, i.e., structural refinements to improve the patentability of hits for deployment in drug discovery campaigns.

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