Hokkaido, Japan
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Sato H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Shimizu T.,Kumiai Chemical Industry Co | Kawai K.,Kumiai Chemical Industry Co | Kaku K.,Kumiai Chemical Industry Co | And 3 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2013

Selectable markers are important in selecting transgenic cells from nontransgenic cells in genetic transformation. A rice (Oryza sativa L.) acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene containing a single point mutation [OsALS (sm)] can confer resistance to pyriminobac (PM) herbicide. We produced transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) using the OsALS (sm) gene as a selectable marker and evaluated its herbicide resistance. Calluses were selected by incubation with PM. All regenerated plants had the OsALS (sm) gene. Transgenic plants sprayed with PM were unaffected whereas wildtype plants stopped growing and eventually died in part. Acetolactate synthase activity in transgenic plants treated with PM was lower than that in wild-type plants without PM but higher than that of wild-type plants with PM. These results indicate that the transgenic plants produced OsALS (sm) protein, which conferred PM resistance. One of the transgenic plants was crossed with a cytoplasmic male-sterile plant to prevent the flow of transgenic pollen into the environment. All F1 plants were male-sterile. The F1 plants that inherited the OsALS (sm) gene were resistant to PM. Therefore, we used the OsALS (sm) gene not only as a plant-derived selectable marker but also for the production of herbicideresistant plants. Introducing other agronomically important genes with the OsALS (sm) gene as a selectable marker into tall fescue and crossing with male-sterile plants should improve public acceptance of transgenic tall fescue. © Crop Science Society of America.

Takahashi W.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Miura Y.,Kyushu Experiment Station | Miura Y.,Snow Brand Seed Co. | Sasaki T.,Forage Crop Research Institute | Takamizo T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Background: Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae), in ryegrasses is a very serious problem. Heavily infected small seedlings die within a matter of days, and stands of the grasses are seriously damaged by the disease. Thus, the development of GLS-resistant cultivars has become a concern in ryegrass breeding. Results: Phenotypic segregations in a single cross-derived F1 population of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) indicated that the GLS resistance in the population was possibly controlled by one or two dominant genes with 66.5-77.9% of broad-sense heritability. In bulked segregant analyses, two simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, which have so far been reported to locate on linkage group (LG) 3 of Italian ryegrass, showed specific signals in the resistant parent and resistant bulk, indicating that the resistance gene locus was possibly in the LG 3. We thus constructed a genetic linkage map of the LG 3 covering 133.6 centimorgan with other SSR markers of the LG 3 of Italian ryegrass and grass anchor probes that have previously been assigned to LG 3 of ryegrasses, and with rice expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived markers selected from a rice EST map of chromosome (Chr) 1 since LG 3 of ryegrasses are syntenic to rice Chr 1. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis with the genetic linkage map and phenotypic data of the F1 population detected a major locus for GLS resistance. Proportions of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL at the highest logarithm of odds scores were 61.0-69.5%. Conclusions: A resistance locus was confirmed as novel for GLS resistance, because its genetic position was different from other known loci for GLS resistance. Broad-sense heritability and the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL were similar, suggesting that most of the genetic factors for the resistance phenotype against GLS in the F1 population can be explained by a function of the single resistance locus. We designated the putative gene for the novel resistance locus as LmPi2. LmPi2 will be useful for future development of GLS-resistant cultivars in combination with other resistance genes. © 2014 Takahashi et al.

Tsubokura Y.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Tsubokura Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Tsubokura Y.,SNOW BRAND SEED CO. | Hajika M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 7 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

β-Conglycinin, a major seed protein in soybean, is composed of α, α′, and β subunits sharing a high homology among them. Despite its many health benefits, β-conglycinin has a lower amino acid score and lower functional gelling properties compared to glycinin, another major soybean seed protein. In addition, the α, α′, and β subunits also contain major allergens. A wild soybean (Glycinesoja Sieb et Zucc.) line, 'QT2', lacks all of the β-conglycinin subunits, and the deficiency is controlled by a single dominant gene, Scg-1 (Suppressor of β-conglycinin). This gene was characterized using a soybean cultivar 'Fukuyutaka', 'QY7-25', (its near-isogenic line carrying the Scg-1 gene), and the F 2 population derived from them. The physical map of the Scg-1 region covered by lambda phage genomic clones revealed that the two α-subunit genes, a β-subunit gene, and a pseudo α-subunit gene were closely organized. The two α-subunit genes were arranged in a tail-to-tail orientation, and the genes were separated by 197 bp in Scg-1 compared to 3. 3 kb in the normal allele (scg-1). In addition, small RNA was detected in immature seeds of the mutants by northern blot analysis using an RNA probe of the α subunit. These results strongly suggest that β-conglycinin deficiency in QT2 is controlled by post-transcriptional gene silencing through the inverted repeat of the α subunits. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

PubMed | Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science, Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization and Snow Brand Seed Company
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breeding science | Year: 2015

Boiled seed hardness is an important factor in the processing of soybean food products such as nimame and natto. Little information is available on the genetic basis for boiled seed hardness, despite the wide variation in this trait. DNA markers linked to the gene controlling this trait should be useful in soybean breeding programs because of the difficulty of its evaluation. In this report, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed to reveal the genetic factors associated with boiled seed hardness using a recombinant inbred line population developed from a cross between two Japanese cultivars, Natto-shoryu and Hyoukei-kuro 3, which differ largely in boiled seed hardness, which in Natto-shoryu is about twice that of Hyoukei-kuro 3. Two significantly stable QTLs, qHbs3-1 and qHbs6-1, were identified on chromosomes 3 and 6, for which the Hyoukei-kuro 3 alleles contribute to decrease boiled seed hardness for both QTLs. qHbs3-1 also showed significant effects in progeny of a residual heterozygous line and in a different segregating population. Given its substantial effect on boiled seed hardness, SSR markers closely linked to qHbs3-1, such as BARCSOYSSR_03_0165 and BARCSOYSSR_03_0185, could be useful for marker-assisted selection in soybean breeding.

Sakuma F.,Snow Brand Seed Co. | Sakuma F.,Hokkaido University | Maeda M.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute | Takahashi M.,Snow Brand Seed Co. | And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2011

Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of green manure as fallow on common scab of potato caused by Streptomyces turgidiscabies. Significantly fewer diseased tubers were harvested from soil incorporated with lopsided oat or woolly pod vetch compared with those from oat and continuous potato cultivation in a planter experiment. Each field experiment consisted of lopsided oat cultivated during the spring and summer prior to the potato planting. Comparisons were also made with several other treatments, including cultivation of woolly pod vetch, oat, soybean, sugar beet, and potato ('Yukirasya', which is resistant to potato common potato scab) and soil application of Ferosand (Fe, mainly FeSO 4, to decrease the soil pH). In field experiments conducted during 1999-2000, treatment with lopsided oat followed by lopsided oat or woolly pod vetch was significantly more effective at suppressing the disease severity than oat and continuous potato cultivation (P < 0.001). An increase in the marketable tuber ratio was also more significant than for oat and continuous potato cultivation (P < 0.001). In field experiments conducted during 2000-01, lopsided oat cultivation alone and with the application of Ferosand (1.8 t/ha) or resistant potato cultivar treatment were significantly more effective at suppressing the disease severity and incidence than sugar beet cultivation (P < 0.001), even under high disease intensity in the field. However, potato yield had a tendency to reduce after lopsided oat treatment with an application of Ferosand (1.8 t/ha) compared with lopsided oat alone or the application of Ferosand at 600 kg/ha, due to low pH conditions. In field experiments conducted during 2001-02, the lowest severity and incidence of common scab of potato were observed in soil treated with lopsided oat than with other treatments (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). These findings suggest that lopsided oat used as fallow green manure can reduce the severity of common scab and increase potato yield. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society.

Tsubokura Y.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Tsubokura Y.,Snow Brand Seed Co. | Watanabe S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Watanabe S.,Saga University | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2014

Background and AimsThe timing of flowering has a direct impact on successful seed production in plants. Flowering of soybean (Glycine max) is controlled by several E loci, and previous studies identified the genes responsible for the flowering loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. However, natural variation in these genes has not been fully elucidated. The aims of this study were the identification of new alleles, establishment of allele diagnoses, examination of allelic combinations for adaptability, and analysis of the integrated effect of these loci on flowering.MethodsThe sequences of these genes and their flanking regions were determined for 39 accessions by primer walking. Systematic discrimination among alleles was performed using DNA markers. Genotypes at the E1-E4 loci were determined for 63 accessions covering several ecological types using DNA markers and sequencing, and flowering times of these accessions at three sowing times were recorded.Key ResultsA new allele with an insertion of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) at the promoter of the E1 locus (e1-re) was identified. Insertion and deletion of 36 bases in the eighth intron (E2-in and E2-dl) were observed at the E2 locus. Systematic discrimination among the alleles at the E1-E3 loci was achieved using PCR-based markers. Allelic combinations at the E1-E4 loci were found to be associated with ecological types, and about 62-66 % of variation of flowering time could be attributed to these loci.ConclusionsThe study advances understanding of the combined roles of the E1-E4 loci in flowering and geographic adaptation, and suggests the existence of unidentified genes for flowering in soybean, © 2013 © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Nonogaki M.,Oregon State University | Sekine T.,Snow Brand Seed Co. | Nonogaki H.,Oregon State University
Seed Science Research | Year: 2015

Impermeability of the testa hinders efficient penetration of some small chemicals, such as transcriptional inhibitors, through the endosperm and the embryo during seed experiments. In Arabidopsis seeds, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-d-glucuronic acid, a substrate for β-glucuronidase, did not permeate through the endosperm and embryo efficiently at the stages before testa rupture. The Arabidopsis testa also limited efficient entry of methoxyfenozide, a chemical ligand that was used for inducible gene expression experiments, into seeds. While the detection of a reporter gene at the early imbibitional stages could be replaced by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the interference of entry of the chemical ligand into seeds by the testa was still problematic to gene induction experiments. To develop an efficient inducible expression system for gene function analysis in seeds, an inducible expression system with nitrate, which is a testa-permeable ligand, was examined. The vector containing the 2.1-kb upstream sequence of NITRITE REDUCTASE 1 was able to cause expression of a test gene (long non-coding RNA) in imbibed seeds at the stage before testa rupture in a nitrate-dependent manner. This system can be used not only for characterization of genes associated with seed dormancy and germination in basic research, but also for the development of germination recovery or enhancement technologies for agricultural applications. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015.

To provide a lactic acid bacterium that can suppress butyric acid fermentation in silage or a fermented feed raw material which has low sugar content and which exhibits no sufficient fermentation quality by a conventional lactic acid bacterium, whereby high-quality silage or a high-quality fermented feed can be consistently prepared. The invention provides a lactic acid bacterium that produces nisin in a grass broth medium having a mono- and disaccharide total content of 0.1 to 0.4 mass% at a concentration of 40 IU or more per mL of a supernatant of the medium; a microbial additive for preparing silage, which additive contains the lactic acid bacterium; and a method for preparing silage or a fermented feed, the method employing the microbial additive.

Snow Brand Seed Co. | Date: 2011-11-22

Seeds and bulbs, seedlings, saplings, natural flowers.

Snow Brand Seed Co. | Date: 2011-11-22

Seeds and bulbs, seedlings, saplings, natural flowers.

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