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Chiba, Japan

Tsubokura Y.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Tsubokura Y.,Snow Brand Seed Co. | Watanabe S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Watanabe S.,Saga University | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2014

Background and AimsThe timing of flowering has a direct impact on successful seed production in plants. Flowering of soybean (Glycine max) is controlled by several E loci, and previous studies identified the genes responsible for the flowering loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. However, natural variation in these genes has not been fully elucidated. The aims of this study were the identification of new alleles, establishment of allele diagnoses, examination of allelic combinations for adaptability, and analysis of the integrated effect of these loci on flowering.MethodsThe sequences of these genes and their flanking regions were determined for 39 accessions by primer walking. Systematic discrimination among alleles was performed using DNA markers. Genotypes at the E1-E4 loci were determined for 63 accessions covering several ecological types using DNA markers and sequencing, and flowering times of these accessions at three sowing times were recorded.Key ResultsA new allele with an insertion of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) at the promoter of the E1 locus (e1-re) was identified. Insertion and deletion of 36 bases in the eighth intron (E2-in and E2-dl) were observed at the E2 locus. Systematic discrimination among the alleles at the E1-E3 loci was achieved using PCR-based markers. Allelic combinations at the E1-E4 loci were found to be associated with ecological types, and about 62-66 % of variation of flowering time could be attributed to these loci.ConclusionsThe study advances understanding of the combined roles of the E1-E4 loci in flowering and geographic adaptation, and suggests the existence of unidentified genes for flowering in soybean, © 2013 © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Sato H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Shimizu T.,Kumiai Chemical Industry Co. | Kawai K.,Kumiai Chemical Industry Co. | Kaku K.,Kumiai Chemical Industry Co. | And 3 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2013

Selectable markers are important in selecting transgenic cells from nontransgenic cells in genetic transformation. A rice (Oryza sativa L.) acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene containing a single point mutation [OsALS (sm)] can confer resistance to pyriminobac (PM) herbicide. We produced transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) using the OsALS (sm) gene as a selectable marker and evaluated its herbicide resistance. Calluses were selected by incubation with PM. All regenerated plants had the OsALS (sm) gene. Transgenic plants sprayed with PM were unaffected whereas wildtype plants stopped growing and eventually died in part. Acetolactate synthase activity in transgenic plants treated with PM was lower than that in wild-type plants without PM but higher than that of wild-type plants with PM. These results indicate that the transgenic plants produced OsALS (sm) protein, which conferred PM resistance. One of the transgenic plants was crossed with a cytoplasmic male-sterile plant to prevent the flow of transgenic pollen into the environment. All F1 plants were male-sterile. The F1 plants that inherited the OsALS (sm) gene were resistant to PM. Therefore, we used the OsALS (sm) gene not only as a plant-derived selectable marker but also for the production of herbicideresistant plants. Introducing other agronomically important genes with the OsALS (sm) gene as a selectable marker into tall fescue and crossing with male-sterile plants should improve public acceptance of transgenic tall fescue. © Crop Science Society of America.

Hirata K.,Akita | Hirata K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Masuda R.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Tsubokura Y.,Snow Brand Seed Co. | And 7 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2015

Boiled seed hardness is an important factor in the processing of soybean food products such as nimame and natto. Little information is available on the genetic basis for boiled seed hardness, despite the wide variation in this trait. DNA markers linked to the gene controlling this trait should be useful in soybean breeding programs because of the difficulty of its evaluation. In this report, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed to reveal the genetic factors associated with boiled seed hardness using a recombinant inbred line population developed from a cross between two Japanese cultivars, ‘Natto-shoryu’ and ‘Hyoukei-kuro 3’, which differ largely in boiled seed hardness, which in ‘Natto-shoryu’ is about twice that of ‘Hyoukei-kuro 3’. Two significantly stable QTLs, qHbs3-1 and qHbs6-1, were identified on chromosomes 3 and 6, for which the ‘Hyoukeikuro 3’ alleles contribute to decrease boiled seed hardness for both QTLs. qHbs3-1 also showed significant effects in progeny of a residual heterozygous line and in a different segregating population. Given its substantial effect on boiled seed hardness, SSR markers closely linked to qHbs3-1, such as BARCSOYSSR_03_0165 and BARCSOYSSR_03_0185, could be useful for marker-assisted selection in soybean breeding. © 2014, Japanese Society of Breeding. All rights reserved.

Tsubokura Y.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Tsubokura Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Tsubokura Y.,Snow Brand Seed Co. | Hajika M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 7 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

β-Conglycinin, a major seed protein in soybean, is composed of α, α′, and β subunits sharing a high homology among them. Despite its many health benefits, β-conglycinin has a lower amino acid score and lower functional gelling properties compared to glycinin, another major soybean seed protein. In addition, the α, α′, and β subunits also contain major allergens. A wild soybean (Glycinesoja Sieb et Zucc.) line, 'QT2', lacks all of the β-conglycinin subunits, and the deficiency is controlled by a single dominant gene, Scg-1 (Suppressor of β-conglycinin). This gene was characterized using a soybean cultivar 'Fukuyutaka', 'QY7-25', (its near-isogenic line carrying the Scg-1 gene), and the F 2 population derived from them. The physical map of the Scg-1 region covered by lambda phage genomic clones revealed that the two α-subunit genes, a β-subunit gene, and a pseudo α-subunit gene were closely organized. The two α-subunit genes were arranged in a tail-to-tail orientation, and the genes were separated by 197 bp in Scg-1 compared to 3. 3 kb in the normal allele (scg-1). In addition, small RNA was detected in immature seeds of the mutants by northern blot analysis using an RNA probe of the α subunit. These results strongly suggest that β-conglycinin deficiency in QT2 is controlled by post-transcriptional gene silencing through the inverted repeat of the α subunits. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Snow Brand Seed Co. | Date: 2006-11-28

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