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Jodhpur, India

Vijayanath V.,Salem College | Anitha M.R.,Deptt. of Anatomy | Raju G.M.,JJM Medical College | Vijayamahantesh S.N.,SNMC
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2011

In India, acute aluminium phosphide poisoning (AAlPP) is a serious health care problem. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of AAlPP and the predictors of mortality at the time of patients' admission. We studied consecutive admissions of patients with AAlPP admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We noted 38 parameters at admission to the hospital and the ICU and compared survivor and non-survivor groups. A total of 54 patients were enrolled comprising 10 females and 44 males and the mean ingested dose of poison was 0.75 ± 0.745 grams. The mortality from AAlPP was 59.3%. We found the following factors to be associated with an increased risk of mortality: a serum creatinine concentration of more than 1.0 mg % (P = 0.01), pH value less than 7.2 (P = 0.014), serum bicarbonate value less than 15 mmol/L (P = 0.048), need for mechanical ventilation (P = 0.045), need for vasoactive drugs like dobutamine (P = 0.027) and nor adrenaline (P = 0.048) AAlPP causes high mortality primarily due to early haemodynamic failure and multi-organ dysfunction.

Basavaraj Metri C.,L.E.S.S. | Baragundi Mahesh C.,SNMC | Lava R.,J.J.M.M.C | Basavarajappa,SSMC | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2011

Aim: Context: Brucellosis is chronic, contagious and zoonotic disease. It is usually difficult to diagnose clinically in the absence of specific clinical features. Hence serological testing forms the mainstay of diagnosing the disease. Aim: The present study was done to know the seroprevalence of brucellosis in Davangere (Karnataka) and to compare Rose Bengal plate test with Standard tube agglutination test. Materials and Methods: Three hundred eighty Blood samples received at Microbiology Department for various serological tests and 45 Blood samples collected from veterinary staff were used for study. Serum was separated from samples and Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and Standard tube agglutination test (STAT) were done. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in the study was 3.3%, it was 2.4% in general population and 11.1% in veterinary staff. Prevalence was more among males (3.7%) than in females (1.01%). 20-40 years age group was more affected (3.6%). Shepherds had the highest prevalence rate (5.9%), followed by farmers (5.2%). Sera received for Widal test and Brucella agglutination test, showed a prevalence of 1.6% and 6.0% respectively. When compared with STAT, RBPT showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99%. Conclusion: Prevalence of brucellosis in Davangere was found to be significant. It was fairly common among the veterinary personnel in this area. Shepherds and farmers were found to be largely affected. RBPT is highly reliable and has a close relation with STAT in the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

Anuradha S.K.,SDMCMSH | Surekha Y.A.,VIMS | Narayan S.,NHH | Sonth S.,SNMC | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2011

Background: A study was conducted in VIMS hospital at Bellary during the epidemic of August 2004 to July 2005. Objectives: To know the hospital based incidence of J.E and to study the age and sex pattern of the infection in the paediatric age group. Materials and Methods: 82 children admitted to the Paediatric ward, VIMS, Bellary with clinical diagnosis of acute viral encephalitis, during the epidemic of August 2004 to July 2005 were studied. After pooling the samples, they were subjected to J.E. MAC ELISA. Results: Out of 82 patients tested by J.E. MAC ELISA, 19 (24%) were positive for J.E. and 12 (14.63%) were positive for flaviviral infection. CSF was positive in all 19 cases with 100% positivity. Serum was positive in 10 cases with 15.87% positivity. This indicates that there are significant number of J.E. cases in Bellary emphasising the rampant nature and stressing the measures to be taken to overwhelm this devastating disease. Conclusion: The hospital based incidence of J.E. was found to be significant in the area of the study. The paediatric age group, between 4to 6 years was found to be most predisposed to J.E., probably because of low immunity in the age group. Male predominance was seen with male to female ratio of 1.42:1. Illiteracy, low socio economic status and living in unhygienic conditions near rice fields contributed to the high incidence of J.E. in and around Bellary. The serological results clearly establish the etiology. Isolation of JEV from specimens would have strengthened the diagnosis.

Jagdeesh V.S.,SNMC | MahalakshmiV.V.,NMC | Hajare V.,NMC | Anand Kumar H.,NMC | Sreekantha,NMC
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2014

Extended spectrum βlactamases (ESBL) producing bacteria are emerging pathogens. They have descended by genetic mutation from native βlactamases found in gram negative bacteria, especially infectious strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species. The present work was carried out to determine the frequency of clinically important isolates like Escherichia coli, klebsiella and pseudomonas spp recovered from various clinical specimens in our set up, to compare the resistance pattern of ESBL producers with that of non ESBL producers, to compare the efficacy among three different cephalosporin's in screening ESBLs and also to compare the efficacy of three different phenotypic confirmatory tests in detecting ESBLs. A total of 300 isolates comprising Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumonia and pseudomonas aeruginosa species were included in the study, during the period between November 2008 and October 2009. Apart from routine antibiogram, all these 300 isolates were screened for ESBL enzymes by using 3 indicator Cephalosporins- Cefpodoxime (30 ug), Cefotaxime (30 ug) and ceftazidime (30 ug) as per NCCLS guidelines. The ESBL screen positive isolates were further subjected to three phenotypic confirmatory test i.e. Double disc diffusion synergy test, inhibitor potentiated disc diffusion test and E-test using klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 700603 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as positive and negative controls respectively. Out of 20000 samples screened, 300 (15%) isolates belong to Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae and pseudomonas aeruginosa species. Out of 300 isolates, majority of them were E.coli 196 (65.33). Klebsiella pneumonia isolates, were 64 (21.33%) and pseudomonas aeruginosa 40 (13.34%). Out of 300 isolates, ESBL screen test positive were 150 (50%). Out of 300 isolates,. The resistance rates of ESBL screen positive isolates to most antibiotics were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of ESBL-negative isolates except for Ampicillin where the resistance rate was not significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of ESBL-negative isolates. However, all ESBL screen positive and negative isolates were susceptible to Imipenem. Among screening tests, Cefpodoxime (94.67%) was more sensitive compared to Ceftazidime (88%) and Cefotaxime (84%). Inhibitor-potentiated disc diffusion test (44%) and E-test (44%) were more sensitive compared to Double disc diffusion synergy test (16%) in confirming the screen positives. The high levels of ESBL producers mainly among gram negative isolates is alarming and warrants special attention, both by the clinicians and the microbiologists. While the clinician has to re-evaluate the antibiotic policies, the lab must be capable of readily identifying these isolates, so that proper therapy can be instituted to avoid misuse or overuse of antibiotics. It is conclude that production of ESBLs by clinically important isolates is emerging as a wide spread problem in our setup. Routine detection of these isolates, appropriate infection control and antibiotic management strategies are needed to the spread of this emerging form of resistance.

Prasanna L.C.,Manipal University India | Bhosale S.,SNMC | D'Souza A.S.,Kasturba Medical College | Mamatha H.,Kasturba Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Introduction: Anthropological studies have document differences in craniofacial features as well as in body characteristics among different populations. The variations in the facial morphology arise through a differential growth and they help us in distinguishing one person from another. These are controlled by a number of factors which include genetic heritage, climate and environment in which we live. Very few researchers from India have worked on these facial features with respect to population and environment. The present work was undertaken to determine whether facial variations were subjected to sexual dimorphism. In addition, comparison of facial indices was made, in order to determine possible variations between south and north Indian populations. Methods: The sample consisted of 200 individuals, 100 each from north and south Indian regions. Various facial parameters were determined on the basis of international anatomical description and facial indices were calculated. Results: North Indian males and females had highest facial height and upper facial height. Facial width of south Indians was more as compared to that of north Indians in both sexes. Regression equation was calculated to compare the probable height with actual height. Conclusion: All the facial parameters and facial indices were found to be statistically highly significant and they showed inter- regional and gender variations. These indices will be beneficial in facial reconstruction surgeries, maxillofacial surgeries, and in forensic medicine, for estimating the stature and sex of an individual.

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