News Article | March 4, 2016
Genomic analyses identify molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancer Nature 531, 7592 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature16965 Authors: Peter Bailey, David K. Chang, Katia Nones, Amber L. Johns, Ann-Marie Patch, Marie-Claude Gingras, David K. Miller, Angelika N. Christ, Tim J. C. Bruxner, Michael C. Quinn, Craig Nourse, L. Charles Murtaugh, Ivon Harliwong, Senel Idrisoglu, Suzanne Manning, Ehsan Nourbakhsh, Shivangi Wani, Lynn Fink, Oliver Holmes, Venessa Chin, Matthew J. Anderson, Stephen Kazakoff, Conrad Leonard, Felicity Newell, Nick Waddell, Scott Wood, Qinying Xu, Peter J. Wilson, Nicole Cloonan, Karin S. Kassahn, Darrin Taylor, Kelly Quek, Alan Robertson, Lorena Pantano, Laura Mincarelli, Luis N. Sanchez, Lisa Evers, Jianmin Wu, Mark Pinese, Mark J. Cowley, Marc D. Jones, Emily K. Colvin, Adnan M. Nagrial, Emily S. Humphrey, Lorraine A. Chantrill, Amanda Mawson, Jeremy Humphris, Angela Chou, Marina Pajic, Christopher J. Scarlett, Andreia V. Pinho, Marc Giry-Laterriere, Ilse Rooman, Jaswinder S. Samra, James G. Kench, Jessica A. Lovell, Neil D. Merrett, Christopher W. Toon, Krishna Epari, Nam Q. Nguyen, Andrew Barbour, Nikolajs Zeps, Kim Moran-Jones, Nigel B. Jamieson, Janet S. Graham, Fraser Duthie, Karin Oien, Jane Hair, Robert Grützmann, Anirban Maitra, Christine A. Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christopher L. Wolfgang, Richard A. Morgan, Rita T. Lawlor, Vincenzo Corbo, Claudio Bassi, Borislav Rusev, Paola Capelli, Roberto Salvia, Giampaolo Tortora, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Gloria M. Petersen, Donna M. Munzy, William E. Fisher, Saadia A. Karim, James R. Eshleman, Ralph H. Hruban, Christian Pilarsky, Jennifer P. Morton, Owen J. Sansom, Aldo Scarpa, Elizabeth A. Musgrove, Ulla-Maja Hagbo Bailey, Oliver Hofmann, Robert L. Sutherland, David A. Wheeler, Anthony J. Gill, Richard A. Gibbs, John V. Pearson, Nicola Waddell, Andrew V. Biankin & Sean M. Grimmond Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-β, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2)
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Proceedings - SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry | Year: 2013
The properties of novel polymers for proppant transport in hydraulic fracturing operations are discussed. Acrylamide based associative polymers have been synthesized using various industrial production processes. Anionic polymers investigated are acrylamide (AMD) based co- and ter-polymers functionalized with monomers such as sodium acrylate (AA), sodium acrylamido-tertiary-butyl sulfonate (ATBS) and a home-made surfactant monomer. The rheological properties of the developed polymers in different brines are evaluated and compared to commercial guar gums usually used for fracturing fluids. The viscoelastic properties as well as settling time of proppant in graduated cylinder have been evaluated. The impact of oxidizing breakers and surfactants added to increase or decrease the viscosity of solutions are reported as well. The new polymers can be used in slickwater, linear gel and cross-linked hydraulic fracturing fluid. They have the ability to carry the proppant down to the target zone. With this technology, proppant can be transported and placed into the fractures with lower concentrations of product and reduce or eliminate the need for using guar gum. Fluid viscosity can be controlled (either increased or decreased) by the addition of surfactants and broken by conventional oxidizers. Laboratory data shows that new associative polymers solutions give very high viscosity at low shear rate and a strong reversible shear thinning effect. Typically, for 3000 ppm of associative polymer, settling time of proppant is 10 times longer than for the same concentration of guar gum. In gel-based fracturing jobs, transport of proppant is generally achieved using guar gum whose viscosity may be improved by adding cross-linkers such as borate or zirconium. The polymer presented in this paper could be a total or partial alternative to guar for proppant transport whose price is subjected to harvest aleas. Results show that lower polymer concentrations are required to obtain the same or even better suspending properties. Besides, traditional oxidizing breakers could be replaced by surfactant to decrease the viscosity of the fluid once the proppant has been placed in the fractures. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.