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Strukova E.N.,RAS Gause Institute of New Antibiotics | Portnoy Y.A.,RAS Gause Institute of New Antibiotics | Romanov A.V.,Smolensk State University | Edelstein M.V.,Smolensk State University | And 2 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2016

There is growing evidence of applicability of the hypothesis of the mutant selection window (MSW), i.e., the range between the MIC and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC), within which the enrichment of resistant mutants is most probable. However, it is not clear if MPC-based pharmacokinetic variables are preferable to the respective MIC-based variables as interstrain predictors of resistance. To examine the predictive power of the ratios of the area under the curve (AUC24) to the MPC and to the MIC, the selection of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of three Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with different MPC/MIC ratios was studied. Each organism was exposed to twice-daily ciprofloxacin for 3 days at AUC24/MIC ratios that provide peak antibiotic concentrations close to the MIC, between the MIC and the MPC, and above the MPC. Resistant K. pneumoniae mutants were intensively enriched at an AUC24/MIC ratio of 60 to 360 h (AUC24/MPC ratio from 2.5 to 15 h) but not at the lower or higher AUC24/MIC and AUC24/MPC ratios, in accordance with the MSW hypothesis. AUC24/MPC and AUC24/MIC relationships with areas under the time courses of ciprofloxacin-resistant K. pneumoniae (AUBCM) were bell shaped. These relationships predict highly variable "antimutant" AUC24/MPC ratios (20 to 290 h) compared to AUC24/MIC ratios (1,310 to 2,610 h). These findings suggest that the potential of the AUC24/MPC ratio as an interstrain predictor of K. pneumoniae resistance is lower than that of the AUC24/MIC ratio. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Soldatenko E.,Smolensk State University | Petrov A.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Journal of Molluscan Studies | Year: 2012

Although Planorbidae are one the most common and diverse families of pulmonates, their mating behaviour is known only for a few species. This paper describes mating behaviour and copulatory mechanics in four species of the Planorbidae: Anisus vortex (Linnaeus, 1758), Bathyomphalus ontortus (Linnaeus, 1758), Choanomphalus riparius (Westerlund, 1865) and Planorbis planorbis (Linnaeus, 1758), and supplements previously published observations on two other species: Segmentina oelandica (Westerlund, 1885) and Planorbella (Seminolina) duryi (Wetherby, 1879). Patterns of musculature of the penial complex [in all species except P. (S.) duryi] were studied using fluorescent phalloidin dye specific for actin filaments. Choanomphalus riparius, P. planorbis and S. oelandica were shown to mate by shell mounting and display an elaborate courtship behaviour accompanied by shell-circling. Planorbella (S.) duryi mates in a face-to-face position; in this species, courtship is accompanied by mechanical stimulation of the partners plicae. Anisus vortex and B. contortus do not exhibit any distinct precopulatory behaviour and mate face-to-face. It is argued that Planorbidae show a relationship between gender expression (functional protandry vs simultaneous hermaphroditism) and mating behaviour (unilateral vs reciprocal mating). The taxonomic utility of the copulatory behaviour and penial musculature is discussed. © 2012 The Author.

Syntomium japonicum Watanabe et Shibata, 1960 and Coprophilus impressus Sharp, 1889 are firstly recorded from Russia (Kunashir Island). New synonymy is established: Coprophilus sibiricus Bernhauer, 1915 = Coprophilus adachii Watanabe et Shibata, 1961, syn. n. © Far Eastern entomologist (Far East. entomol.).

Ershov D.K.,Smolensk State University
Russian Physics Journal | Year: 2012

Effective nucleus charges Z eff are calculated for electrons of 2s 1/2- and 2p 1/2-shells in atoms of heavy elements with the use of the Dirac-Sommerfeld relativistic formula. It is established that starting from Z = 87, a change of {increment}Z eff > 1 is observed when going to the subsequent element ({increment}Z = 1), that is, anti-screening of a certain type takes place. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

The type material of the Oriental Carpelimus species from five museums have been investigated. Thirty four lectotypes are designated for the following species: Trogophloeus bengalensis Cameron, 1930; T. bicolor Cameron, 1940; T. calcut-tanus Bernhauer, 1911; T. chatterjeei Cameron, 1930; T. congruus Cameron, 1930; T. coriaceus Cameron, 1930; T. flavi-pennis Cameron, 1930; T. formosae Cameron, 1940; T. formosanus Cameron, 1940; T. foveicollis Kraatz, 1859; T. gratus Cameron, 1930; T. halophiloides Cameron, 1918; T. javanicus Cameron, 1936; T. laticeps Cameron, 1930; T. lepidicornis Fauvel, 1904; T. littoralis Cameron, 1918; T. louwerensi Cameron, 1938; T. lucens Cameron, 1918; T. nitidipennis Cam-eron, 1919; T. palitans Cameron, 1930; T. pallidicornis Cameron, 1945; T. papuensis Fauvel, 1879; T. piceicollis Camer-on, 1930; T. planicollis Bernhauer, 1902; T. praelongus Bernhauer, 1938; T. pusae Cameron, 1930; T. ruficornis Cameron, 1930; T. rufoniger Cameron, 1945; T. sadiyanus Cameron, 1945; T. saigonensis Cameron, 1940; T. scabrosus Kraatz, 1859; T. simplex Motschulsky, 1857; T. Taprobanae Walker, 1859; T. Trivialis Cameron, 1930. The genital figures for all species (except T. flavipennis) are presented. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

The paper presents a description of the new species, Thinobius (s. str.) endroedyi from Namibia. The lectotype of Th. (s. str.) iridiventris Bernhauer, 1934 is designated, and a supplemented description of this species is provided. A key to the representatives of the genus Thinobius from tropical Africa is given. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

Yurchinskij V.J.,Smolensk State University
Advances in Gerontology | Year: 2016

A comparative morphological study on Hassall’s corpuscles of different maturity in vertebrate animals and humans with consideration of the age was carried out by light microscopy. It was found that the number and size of Hassall’s corpuscles of different maturity depend on age, as well as the environmental conditions. Conclusions on the functional role of Hassall’s corpuscles were drawn based on the present study. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Gildenkov M.Y.,Smolensk State University
Baltic Journal of Coleopterology | Year: 2014

New distributional records from Nepal for thirteen species of the genus Carpelimus Leach, 1819 are presented. Six species are new for the fauna of Nepal: Carpelimus (Bucephalinus) laticeps (Cameron, 1930); Carpelimus (s.str.) congruus (Cameron, 1930); Carpelimus (s.str.) indicus (Kraatz, 1859); Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) bengalensis (Cameron, 1930); Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) corticinus (Gravenhorst, 1806); Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) palitans (Cameron, 1930). Two new combinations are proposed: Carpelimus (Bucephalinus) kathmanduensis Herman, 2001, comb. n. and Carpelimus (Bucephalinus) nepalicus (Coiffait, 1982), comb. n.

Pototskaya T.I.,Smolensk State University
Regional Research of Russia | Year: 2014

The paper presents the results of studying Russia's geopolitical interests in regions of the former Soviet Union, which form the southern section of its state border, i.e., in the Caucasian geopolitical region (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), in partially recognized states (Abkhazia and South Ossetia), and in the Central Asian geopolitical region (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan). The military-political, territorial, social, economic, and environmental interests of Russia in these regions are identified and considered. Their qualitative and quantitative evaluations are given, and their importance in shaping the regional priorities of Russian foreign policy is geographically justified. Russia's place in foreign trade for each geopolitical region is identified. The paper's focus is on the dynamics of geopolitical interests in the post-Soviet period. Based on the results of rating of Russia's geopolitical interests in each region, types of post-Soviet countries are identified with respect to their foreign policy towards Russia, i.e., potential allies, hypothetical opponents, and neutral countries. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014. Original Russian Text © T.I. Pototskaya, 2014.

The article presents a description of the new species, Thinobius (s. str.) endroedy, from Namibia. The lecto- type, T. (s. str.) iridiventris Bernhauer 1934, is designated, its redescription is given. A key to the identification of the genus Thinobius from tropical Africa is given. © 2015 M. Yu. Gildenkov.

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