Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute

Silver Hill, MD, United States

Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute

Silver Hill, MD, United States
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Vaslet A.,Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce | Phillips D.L.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | France C.,Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute | Feller I.C.,Smithsonian Environmental Research Center | Baldwin C.C.,Smithsonian Institution
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2012

In the western Atlantic region, the contribution of mangrove food sources to fish diets has been considered of more limited importance than previously expected due to the proximity of mangroves to adjacent potential food sources such as those in seagrass beds. To investigate the influence of different types of mangrove habitats on the relative contribution of mangrove and seagrass food sources in fish diets, four mangrove habitats adjacent to seagrass beds were studied in Florida and Belize using gut-contents and stable-isotope analyses: mangrove fringe forests, basin mangrove, mangrove ponds and overwash mangrove islets. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions of 41 fish taxa and an array of potential primary (microphytobenthos, litter, seagrass leaves and their epiphytes, algae, plankton) and secondary (benthic invertebrates) prey were analyzed with SIAR mixing models to examine food source contributions in fish diets relative to habitat type. In all study sites, δ 13C values of mangrove prey were significantly depleted relative to those from seagrass beds, allowing stable isotopes to provide reliable insights about origins of fish food. Seagrass prey located near basin mangroves in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, Florida) had more negative δ 13C signatures than seagrass prey adjacent to fringing mangroves of the Florida Keys, suggesting that seagrass from the IRL incorporated dissolved inorganic carbon from mangroves. Contributions of mangrove and seagrass prey to fish diets were influenced by type of mangrove habitat and fish residency status. Resident species significantly relied on mangrove prey, whereas only four transients foraged in mangroves. Most transient fishes occurring in basin and fringing mangroves actively foraged in nearby seagrass beds, thus reinforcing the limited role of mangroves as fish foraging habitat for transient species. However, a shift in fish diet was observed for transient species from mangrove ponds, in which they relied on mangrove prey. In overwash mangroves (Belize), the enriched carbon signatures of fishes and the generally higher contributions of seagrass prey to fish diets suggest that fishes derived most of their food from seagrass beds. This trend was particularly highlighted for juvenile reef fishes that shelter in mangroves but forage in nearby seagrass beds. These findings emphasize the importance of considering fish ecology (residency and life status) and type of mangrove habitat when assessing the contribution of mangrove prey to fish food webs in the western Atlantic region. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Vaslet A.,Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce | France C.,Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute | Baldwin C.C.,Smithsonian Institution | Feller I.C.,Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
Neotropical Ichthyology | Year: 2012

Foraging habitats of juveniles of the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther, 1862), were investigated in two mangrove ponds located in Twin Cays offshore islet in Belize: Sink Hole pond (SH) and Hidden Lake pond (HL). Sink Hole pond is a semiclosed body of water, whereas Hidden Lake pond is connected by a channel to adjacent seagrass beds that surround the islet. Gut contents of 21 juvenile C. urophthalmus (9.8-13.2 cm total length) were analyzed, and five prey taxa were identified. In both mangrove ponds, C. urophthalmus were opportunistic carnivores and consumed primarily crustaceans. Plant material and detritus present in gut contents were most likely ingested incidentally when the fish foraged on small invertebrates. Carbon isotopic values of fish specimens from the two ponds were similar (mean ± SD of -19.2 ± 0.4± in SH and -19.4 ± 0.4± in HL), and were close to those of mangrove prey (mean ± SD = -20.2 ± 1.5±), suggesting that this fish species forages in this habitat. Mixing models showed a higher contribution of mangrove food sources to the fish diet than seagrass food sources. This study reveals that young Mayan cichlids, inhabiting two Belize mangrove ponds, are generalists and opportunistic carnivores that forage on mangrove food sources and do not appear to move to adjacent seagrass beds to complement their diets. Understanding trophic linkages between aquatic consumers and food resources may contribute to better management of threatened coastal ecosystems. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia.

Vaslet A.,Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce | France C.,Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute | Phillips D.L.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Feller I.C.,Smithsonian Environmental Research Center | Baldwin C.C.,Smithsonian Institution
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2011

The feeding habits and habitats of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus were studied on the mangrove edge of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, Florida) using gut-content and stable-isotope analyses of carbon (δ 13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N). Four taxa were identified through analyses of gut contents, and the index of relative importance suggested that amphipods, microphytobenthos and annelids are the most important food sources in the fish's diet. To assess the feeding habits of the fish after their recruitment to the IRL, these food sources were collected from mangroves and nearby seagrass beds for isotope analyses. Stable isotopes constituted a powerful tool for discriminating fish prey items from mangroves (mean ±s.d.δ 13C = -20·5 ± 0·6‰) and those from seagrass beds (mean ±s.d.δ 13C = -16·9 ± 0·6‰), thus providing good evidence of food source origins. The 56 M. punctatus collected [10·0 < total length (L T) < 16·2 cm] had average isotopic signatures of δ 13C = -16·7 ± 0·2‰ and δ 15N = 8·2 ± 0·1‰. A significant depletion in 13C was observed for larger juveniles (15·0 < L T < 16·2 cm), suggesting that they found a portion of their food in mangroves. Estimation of the trophic level from stable isotopes (T Liso) was similar among different size groups of juvenile fish (T Liso = 3·2-3·5); therefore, M. punctatus was considered a secondary consumer, which is consistent with its zoobenthic diet. The concentration-dependent mixing Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) model revealed the importance of food sources from seagrass beds as carbon sources for all the fish collected, with a significant increase in mangrove prey contributions, such as annelids, in the diet of larger juveniles. This study highlights the importance of seagrass beds as feeding habitats for juveniles of M. punctatus after their recruitment to coastal waters. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Lind E.M.,Smithsonian Environmental Research Center | Lind E.M.,University of Minnesota | Myron E.P.,Smithsonian Environmental Research Center | Myron E.P.,Duke University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2012

Within a plant species, leaf traits can vary across environmental, genetic, spatial, and temporal gradients, even showing drastic differences within individuals. Herbivory can also induce variation in leaf morphology, defensive structure, and chemistry including nutritional content. Indirect effects of prior insect herbivory on later herbivores have been well documented, but the induction of trait changes after vertebrate herbivory has been little explored. Here, we examined how browsing of spicebush (Lindera benzoin L.), a dominant understory shrub in eastern mesic forests, by whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus L.) altered plant quality and subsequent foliar herbivory by insects. Browsing history explained ≈10% of overall leaf trait variation; regenerated leaves had greater water content and specific leaf area (P = 0.009), but were lower in nitrogen and greater in carbon (P < 0.001), than leaves on unbrowsed plants. However, browsing did not shift terpene chemistry as revealed by GC-MS. In the lab, caterpillars of the specialist spicebush swallowtail (Papilio troilus L.) preferred (P = 0.02) and grew 20% faster (P = 0.02) on foliage from browsed plants; whereas total herbivory in the field, including generalist insect herbivory, was twice as high on unbrowsed plants (P = 0.016). These results suggest that the ecological impacts of deer in forest understories can have cascading impacts on arthropod communities by changing the suitability of host-plants to insect herbivores. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

PubMed | U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center and Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of fish biology | Year: 2015

Stable isotope ((13)C and (15)N) and gut content analyses were used to investigate size-related feeding habits of four reef fishes (the beaugregory Stegastes leucostictus, the french grunt Haemulon flavolineatum, the schoolmaster snapper Lutjanus apodus and the yellowtail snapper Ocyurus chrysurus) inhabiting an offshore (non-estuarine) mangrove islet off Belize, Central America. Comparisons of isotopic niche space and Schoener diet similarity index suggested a low to moderate degree of niche overlap between fish size groups. The (13)C gradient between mangrove and seagrass prey as well as results of Bayesian mixing models revealed that sampled fishes relied mostly on seagrass prey items. Only small and large juveniles of the carnivorous species L. apodus derived a part of their diet from mangroves by targeting mangrove-associated Grapsidae crabs and fish prey, respectively. Isotopic niche shifts were particularly obvious for carnivorous fishes that ingested larger prey items (Xanthidae crabs and fishes) during their ontogeny. The utilization of mangrove food resources is less than expected and depends on the ecology and life history of the fish species considered. This research highlights that mangrove-derived carbon contributed relatively little to the diets of four fish taxa from an offshore mangrove islet.

Bertrand L.,Synchrotron Soleil | Languille M.-A.,Synchrotron Soleil | Cohen S.X.,Synchrotron Soleil | Robinet L.,Synchrotron Soleil | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation | Year: 2011

IPANEMA, a research platform devoted to ancient and historical materials (archaeology, cultural heritage, palaeontology and past environments), is currently being set up at the synchrotron facility SOLEIL (Saint-Aubin, France; SOLEIL opened to users in January 2008). The new platform is open to French, European and international users. The activities of the platform are centred on two main fields: increased support to synchrotron projects on ancient materials and methodological research. The IPANEMA team currently occupies temporary premises at SOLEIL, but the platform comprises construction of a new building that will comply with conservation and environmental standards and of a hard X-ray imaging beamline today in its conceptual design phase, named PUMA. Since 2008, the team has supported synchrotron works at SOLEIL and at European synchrotron facilities on a range of topics including pigment degradation in paintings, composition of musical instrument varnishes, and provenancing of medieval archaeological ferrous artefacts. Once the platform is fully operational, user support will primarily take place within medium-term research projects for hosted scientists, PhDs and post-docs. IPANEMA methodological research is focused on advanced two-dimensional/three-dimensional imaging and spectroscopy and statistical image analysis, both optimized for ancient materials. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography.

Gervais C.,Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute | Gervais C.,University of Bern | Languille M.-A.,Synchrotron Soleil | Reguer S.,Synchrotron Soleil | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2013

Prussian blue (PB) and its analogues are widely studied because of their interesting and promising magnetic and optical properties. The pigment Prussian blue, found in different types of artworks (paintings, watercolors and photographs), is also studied in the area of heritage science, where its capricious fading behavior under light or anoxia treatment poses problematic conservation issues. PB fading is due to the reduction of iron(iii) to iron(ii) and depends significantly on the artefact. This paper focuses on the roles of the substrate in affecting the PB structure and modifying the redox process. In particular, X-ray absorption experiments at the Fe K-edge of unfaded and faded PB-paper samples show that changes in the PB structure can happen by simple contact with the substrate, prior to the fading treatment. Spectrophotometric measurements on a series of model PB-paper samples further demonstrate the multiple influences of the substrate and show that not only its chemical composition but also its role as a dispersion and textured medium significantly alter the fading behavior of PB. A potential roadmap is proposed to rationally investigate the complex fading process of Prussian blue on a substrate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Huffer D.,Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute | Chappell D.,University of Sydney
Crime, Law and Social Change | Year: 2014

This paper represents an exploratory study of what is known about the current global trade in human remains, and in particular, specimens from archaeological or ethnographic contexts, regardless of which source countries they derive from and where they are destined. The paper is in four parts. In Part 1, we explain how the analysis of human remains forms an important component of archaeological research, and why looting activity at burial sites prejudice this research. In Part 2 we review the existing and relevant archaeological, ethnographic and criminological literature on the subject while in Part 3 we describe our own research into the online trade in human remains, both licit and illicit. To assess the current global prevalence and distribution of public and private dealers in human remains, keyword searches on common search engines (Google, Yahoo, Bing), and online sites like eBay and Amazon were conducted. In Part 4 we draw some conclusions about our research and point in particular to various policy and law reform issues which require further consideration and study. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

France C.A.M.,Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute | Owsley D.W.,Smithsonian Institution | Hayek L.A.C.,Smithsonian Institution
Journal of Archaeological Science | Year: 2014

Using stable isotopes to gain insight into individual life histories is a valuable tool for unidentified or incomplete remains lacking historic records. This study analyzed stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotopes from bones and teeth of 18th-19th century North Americans of known ancestry, social class, and region of origin in an effort to discern qualitative patterns and create a quantitative predictive model of demographic information. The δ13Ccollagen, δ13Cstructural carbonate, and δ18Ostructural carbonate values provide the most overall information for detecting demographic differences, with δ15Ncollagen and δ18Ophosphate to a lesser degree. Region of origin was the most predictable demographic factor with 82% correct classifications based on a two-variable model using δ13Ccollagen and δ18Ometeoric water calculated from δ18Ostructural carbonate, which reflects the influence of dominant local vegetation types and local drinking water. Ancestry was correctly identified in 68% of cases using δ13Ccollagen. Social class was less predictable with correct identification in 60% of cases based on δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O values where the upper class was most distinguishable. Isotope patterns observed in ancestry and social class groups are linked to cultural food preferences and food availability. Certain sample sites, such as military burials and urban cemeteries, show a greater range of isotope values suggesting a variety of individual regional origins and cultural backgrounds. Burials of extreme upper or lower class individuals show greater isotopic homogeneity suggesting reliance on localized food sources or cultural preferences for particular dietary choices. © 2013.

France C.A.M.,Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute | Giaccai J.A.,Smithsonian Institution | Doney C.R.,Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2015

Stable isotopes in bones are a powerful tool for diet, provenance, climate, and physiological reconstructions, but necessarily require well-preserved specimens unaltered by postmortem diagenesis or conservation practices. This study examines the effects of Paraloid B-72 and Butvar B-98, two common consolidants used in field and museum conservation, on δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O values from bone collagen and hydroxyapatite. The effects of solvent removal (100% acetone, 100% ethanol, 9:1 acetone:xylenes, 9:1 ethanol:xylenes) and drying methods (ambient air, vacuum, oven drying at 80°C) were also examined to determine if bones treated with these consolidants can successfully be cleaned and used for stable isotope analyses. Results show that introduction of Paraloid B-72 or Butvar B-98 in 100% acetone or 100% ethanol, respectively, with subsequent removal by the same solvents and drying at 80°C facilitates the most successful removal of consolidants and solvents. The δ13C values in collagen, δ15N in collagen, δ18O in hydroxyapatite phosphate, and δ13C in hydroxyapatite structural carbonate were unaltered by treatments with Paraloid or Butvar and subsequent solvent removal. The δ18O in hydroxyapatite structural carbonate showed nonsystematic variability when bones were treated with Paraloid and Butvar, which is hypothesized to be a result of hydroxyl exchange when bones are exposed to consolidants in solution. It is therefore recommended that δ18O in hydroxyapatite structural carbonate should not be used in stable isotope studies if bones have been treated with Paraloid or Butvar. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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