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Fort Pierce, FL, United States

Young C.M.,University of Oregon | He R.,North Carolina State University | Emlet R.B.,University of Oregon | Li Y.,North Carolina State University | And 10 more authors.
Integrative and Comparative Biology | Year: 2012

Using data on ocean circulation with a Lagrangian larval transport model, we modeled the potential dispersal distances for seven species of bathyal invertebrates whose durations of larval life have been estimated from laboratory rearing, MOCNESS plankton sampling, spawning times, and recruitment. Species associated with methane seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and/or Barbados included the bivalve "Bathymodiolus" childressi, the gastropod Bathynerita naticoidea, the siboglinid polychaete tube worm Lamellibrachia luymesi, and the asteroid Sclerasterias tanneri. Non-seep species included the echinoids Cidaris blakei and Stylocidaris lineata from sedimented slopes in the Bahamas and the wood-dwelling sipunculan Phascolosoma turnerae, found in Barbados, the Bahamas, and the Gulf of Mexico. Durations of the planktonic larval stages ranged from 3 weeks in lecithotrophic tubeworms to more than 2 years in planktotrophic starfish. Planktotrophic sipunculan larvae from the northern Gulf of Mexico were capable of reaching the mid-Atlantic off Newfoundland, a distance of more than 3000km, during a 7- to 14-month drifting period, but the proportion retained in the Gulf of Mexico varied significantly among years. Larvae drifting in the upper water column often had longer median dispersal distances than larvae drifting for the same amount of time below the permanent thermocline, although the shapes of the distance-frequency curves varied with depth only in the species with the longest larval trajectories. Even species drifting for >2 years did not cross the ocean in the North Atlantic Drift. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

Young C.M.,University of Oregon | Emson R.H.,Kings College London | Rice M.E.,Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce | Tyler P.A.,University of Southampton
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2013

Between 1992 and 1994, palm fronds and bundles of fibrous material (rolled door mats of Chinese dragon grass) were deployed by submersible every 3 months at 520m depth in the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. Substrata were recovered after 3-month and 6-month exposure periods and searched intensively for invertebrate colonists. Recruitment surfaces were colonized during every exposure period by three species of cocculiniform limpets, Cocculina rathbuni, Cocculina emsoni, and Notocrater youngi. At least two species appeared in each season, but the relative numbers varied in a way that may indicate seasonal differences in reproduction. Gonad development could be observed through the transparent shell of C. rathbuni, which attained sexual maturity in less than 3 months and had a maximum instantaneous fecundity of 40 eggs. Growth rates (0.025-0.044mm/day) were high when scaled to adult body size. We used current-meter data from the deployment site to calculate the fluxes of larvae that would be required to produce the measured levels of recruitment. Observed recruitment would require larval densities of hundreds of thousands to millions of larvae per km3. Nevertheless, it is remarkable that these snails are able to succeed with an opportunistic strategy given their low fecundity and lecithotrophic development. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gunasekera S.P.,Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce | Miller M.W.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Kwan J.C.,University of Florida | Luesch H.,University of Florida | Paul V.J.,Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2010

A new dolastatin 13 analogue, molassamide (1), was isolated from cyanobacterial assemblages of Dichothrix utahensis collected from the Molasses Reef, Key Largo, Florida, and from Brewer's Bay, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. This is the first peptide reported from the cyanobacterial genus Dichothrix and the first natural product isolated from marine Dichothrix spp. Its planar structure was determined by NMR spectroscopic techniques, and the configurations of the asymmetric centers were assigned after chiral HPLC analysis of the hydrolysis products. The depsipeptide 1 exhibited protease-inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 0.032 and 0.234 μM against elastase and chymotrypsin, respectively. There was no apparent inhibition of trypsin at 10 μM the highest concentration tested. © 2010 American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.

Gunasekera S.P.,Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce | Owle C.S.,Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce | Montaser R.,University of Florida | Luesch H.,University of Florida | Paul V.J.,Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2011

Malyngamide 3 (1) and cocosamides A (2) and B (3) were isolated from the lipophilic extract of a collection of Lyngbya majuscula from Cocos Lagoon, Guam. The planar structures of compounds 1-3 were determined by spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by modified Mosher's method, NOESY data, and comparison with lyngbic acid (4). The absolute configurations of 2 and 3 were assigned by enantioselective HPLC analysis and comparison with the closely related compound pitipeptolide A (5). Compounds 1-3 showed weak cytotoxicity against MCF7 breast cancer and HT-29 colon cancer cells. © 2011 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.

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