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Metropolitan Government of Nashville-Davidson (balance), TN, United States

Qualls C.,Smith Seckman Reid Inc.
Engineered Systems | Year: 2012

Experts suggest that potential geothermal designers need to consider geothermal heating and cooling options when designing and installing such systems. They need to remember that there are three general types of geothermal systems, such as open loop, closed loop, and hybrids. Open loop systems use a dedicated well with a submersible pump as the source of water delivered to the heat pump. Hybrid systems use some piping and an evaporative cooler and designers can get creative in using different types of loops to achieve the best results for cost and energy savings. Designers can save money on installations by examining heating against cooling load and size piping for heating load and supplement cooling with an evaporative condenser. It is also important to remember that geothermal is on an energy efficiency ratio (EER) rating system, which is different than most conventional equipment.

Banse J.P.,Smith Seckman Reid Inc.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer | Year: 2010

Not all co-standards"ANSI/UL, for example"are adopted or approved at the same time. For instance, although UL may have written and approved a standard in 2004, ANSI may put it in its next review cycle and the standard may not get approved until several years later. Keeping up with adopted and latest editions of the standards can be a chore, especially when trying to keep a master specification up to date. It is best to talk with equipment manufacturers and review applicable standards regularly with the writing organization's website. As a specifier and designer, it is good to be familiar with the testing and measuring criteria to which the standard applies, so you know what to expect and do not require items that may be irrelevant or difficult to achieve. Reading the standards once in a while is also a good practice to keep informed.

Banse J.P.,Smith Seckman Reid Inc.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer | Year: 2010

Several tools such as equipment calculation and selection programs, 2 and 3-D CAD drafting, which are employed by mechanical engineers to ensure the efficiency in their jobs are presented. CAD programs and BIM are making the design and construction lives easier by creating ways to design, lay out, and allow multidiscipline coordination in 3-D. The design method allows the team to see how components and systems interface with each other in actual size and location, thus potentially eliminating conflicts and allowing contractors to do their field coordination and installation more efficiently. Energy modeling programs along with the US Department of Health and Human Services and designated ASHRAE standards and codes will edit a heat load on a space-by-space basis, choose the worst case, and indicate that in the output while sizing the ductwork for the space. The tools available to the engineer are important to every project in order to produce work consistently, uniformly, and quickly.

Divine T.,Smith Seckman Reid Inc.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer | Year: 2010

Wet stacking is a term describing a diesel engine dripping a thick, dark substance from its exhaust pipes or stacks. The condition is caused by operating the engine at light load for extended periods, sending unburned fuel and soot into the exhaust system. When the injector nozzle is fouled with carbon, its ability to atomize the fuel is compromised, and it delivers larger droplets to the cylinder. The general cure for wet stacking is a few hours of operation at a load of about 75% of the generator's nameplate rating or more, raising the exhaust temperature high enough to vaporize the unburned fuel in the exhaust system and blow out the soot. A load bank with enough capacity to increase the total test load, including the facility's minimum available load, high enough to reach either the recommended exhaust temperature or the prescribed 30% level, is adequate for compliance. Wet stacking can be avoided by proper generator selection, and by properly performing routine generator testing.

Some of the latest laboratory ventilation code and standard editions that provide good HVAC design, proper airflow, and correct pressure relationships for a project and client, are discussed. Chapter 11 of NFPA 99 (2005 Edition), Standard for Healthcare Facilities, establish criteria to minimize the hazards of fire and explosions in laboratories. The 2006 AIA Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities, as well as the newest 2010 Facility Guidelines Institute (FGI) Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities, list minimum air change rates for laboratories at 6 to 10 air changes/hour (ACH), depending on the space function. NFPA 99 and NFPA 45 cover the quantities of flammable and combustible material allowed to be stored in a lab. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) regulates all laboratory testing (except research) performed on humans in the United States through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA).

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