Bell J.D.,Fisheries |
Ganachaud A.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement |
Ganachaud A.,CNRS Geophysical Research and Oceanographic Laboratory |
Gehrke P.C.,SMEC Australia Pty Ltd |
And 13 more authors.
Nature Climate Change | Year: 2013
Pacific Island countries have an extraordinary dependence on fisheries and aquaculture. Maintaining the benefits from the sector is a difficult task, now made more complex by climate change. Here we report how changes to the atmosphere-ocean are likely to affect the food webs, habitats and stocks underpinning fisheries and aquaculture across the region. We found winners and losers - tuna are expected to be more abundant in the east and freshwater aquaculture and fisheries are likely to be more productive. Conversely, coral reef fisheries could decrease by 20% by 2050 and coastal aquaculture may be less efficient. We demonstrate how the economic and social implications can be addressed within the sector - tuna and freshwater aquaculture can help support growing populations as coral reefs, coastal fisheries and mariculture decline. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Peters G.M.,University of New South Wales |
Peters G.M.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Blackburn N.J.,Monash University |
Armedion M.,SMEC Australia Pty Ltd
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2013
Purpose: Devices that condense and disinfect water vapour to provide chilled drinking water in office environments, so-called 'air water generators' (AWGs), are being marketed as environmentally friendly alternatives to the traditional bottled water cooler. We sought to examine this claim. Methods: The approach adopted was a preliminary life cycle assessment with performance indicators for the use of energy and water and the emission of greenhouse gases. We compared an AWG with its main market competitor, the traditional bottled water cooler and a simple refrigerator containing a jug of water. Modelling was based on Australian conditions and energy supply. To manage possible scope uncertainty, we borrowed the idea of 'triangulation' as defined in the social sciences. Results and discussion: We found that without a renewable energy supply, the claim of environmental superiority is not supported by quantitative analysis. For each indicator, the AWG's score was typically two to four times higher than the alternatives. Energy consumption was the key issue driving all three indicators. Conclusions: Considering the principal environmental issues related to these systems, air-to-water machines significantly underperform bottled water coolers. A simple refrigerator has the capacity to perform multiple functions and therefore outperform both the bottled and atmospheric water options once allocation of burdens is considered. These conclusions are supported by all three perspectives examined to manage uncertainty. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Drowley L.,SMEC Australia Pty Ltd. |
Kost S.,SMEC Australia Pty Ltd. |
Ko E.,SMEC Australia Pty Ltd.
14th Australasian Tunnelling Conference 2011: Development of Underground Space, Proceedings | Year: 2011
The Adelaide Desalination Plant (ADP) draws raw sea water into the facility and returns saline concentrate to the Gulf St Vincent via subsea conduits. This paper describes the detailed design and construction methodologies developed for the cross connection tunnel excavation. The paper concentrates on key design elements which include: • lateral breakout support of the segmental tunnel lining, • ground improvement grouting in the zone of the cross connection tunnels due to extremely variable and weak ground conditions, and • excavation methodologies and proposed support types of the riser to tunnel cross connections. The design process consisted of developing concepts, detailed risk assessment, three-dimensional (3D) finite element modelling and structural analysis for temporary support of tunnel lining; functional design of the ground improvement grouting and the temporary support; and permanent lining design of tunnel to ocean riser connections in a mixed soft ground/hard rock environment. The paper also presents conclusions of the design based on construction data available, and highlights the close collaboration between the design team and construction team.
Priest J.A.,University of Southampton |
Powrie W.,University of Southampton |
Yang L.,SMEC Australia Pty Ltd |
Grabe P.J.,University of Pretoria |
Clayton C.R.I.,University of Southampton
Geotechnique | Year: 2010
This paper presents the results of a detailed investigation into the ground deformations that occur under a railway line during the passage of a train. Four horizontal bore-holes were installed at different depths below a ballasted railway track. Ground deformations were measured using geophones at set distances from the centreline of the track within each borehole. The results show vertical displacements reducing with depth, from a maximum at the sleeper. Sleeper displacements are dominated by pairs of bogies at the ends of adjacent wagons (which have a frequency of loading 1 Hz), although the effects of indivi-dual bogies (2 Hz) and axles (6 Hz) are also apparent. Higher loading frequencies attenuate with depth so that at a depth of 0.780 m below the sleeper soffit no axles are visible within the displacement data and by a depth of 1.98 m only the combined effect of pairs of adjacent bogies is apparent. In contrast, longitudinal horizontal motion is greatest at a depth of 0.78 m below the sleeper soffit, and the longitudinal horizontal displacements at the sleeper and at a depth of 0.78 m are dominated by the individual axles (~6 Hz). By a depth of 1.98 m, the longitudinal horizontal motion is dominated by the bogie pairs. A dynamic linear-elastic two-dimensional finite element model was developed and validated using the measured displacements.
Sufian A.,University of New South Wales |
Sufian A.,SMEC Australia Pty Ltd. |
Russell A.R.,University of New South Wales
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences | Year: 2013
Four X-ray CT scans at 5μm spatial resolution using a 59. kV X-ray source were taken of a 5. mm diameter sample of Gosford sandstone under successively increasing pre-failure loads in unconfined compression. The study focussed on the evolution of microstructural pore properties following reconstruction of the radiographic projection images and segmentation into a binary representation and concatenation to form 3D datasets. Pore sizes and their distribution, orientation and surface areas were considered, as were the fractal dimensions of pore and solid spaces. The number of pores increased during early stages of loading, prior to a reduction of pore numbers at a point also corresponding to a slight stiffening of the stress-strain curve, even though volumetric compression was taking place. The pores were always well networked, with around 95% by volume being connected. Also, orientations of newly created pores tended to be near parallel to the direction of compressive loading, and therefore perpendicular to the direction of maximum tensile strains. Energy dissipation associated with the creation of new surface and the redistribution of stored energy through the newly fractured sandstone was back-calculated using the observed stress-strain response. A general increase in dissipation rate with the applied load was observed in the pre-failure region. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Nguyen H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney |
Khabbaz H.,University of Technology, Sydney |
Fatahi B.,University of Technology, Sydney |
Kelly R.,SMEC Australia Pty Ltd
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2016
Controlled modulus columns (CMC) for ground improvement are installed using a hollow stem displacement auger to induce lateral soil displacement effect, followed by grout injection. While the method reduces spoils, the excessive lateral soil displacement may damage adjacent structures. Although there has been growing interest in quantifying such effects, only a handful of studies have been attempted. This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation on the CMC installation effect on an existing bridge pile using the three-dimensional finite difference software package FLAC3D. It has been found that when the CMC is long and the existing bridge pile is slender, the pile bending moment and pile lateral movement, induced by the CMC installation effect, can be significant. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ohiduzzaman M.,University of New South Wales |
Lo S.C.R.,University of New South Wales |
Craciun O.,SMEC Australia Pty. Ltd.
Computer Methods for Geomechanics: Frontiers and New Applications | Year: 2011
This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of initial matric suction on the performance of unbound granular base (UGB) materials. A series of cyclic triaxial tests with different initial matric suction were performed to isolate the effect of initial matric suction on the behavior of UGB materials. The initial matric suction can be used to capture the effect of fi nes content on the performance of UGB behavior. For a given gradation of UGB materials, the initial matric suction increased with increasing fi nes content obtained via soil water characteristic curve (SWCC). The variation of matric suction and the mechanical behavior of these materials under cyclic loading are thoroughly studied. The relevance of using initial matric suction to refl ect the effect of fi nes provides the opportunity of analyzing the pavement within the framework of unsaturated soil mechanics.