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News Article | April 18, 2016
Site: http://www.techtimes.com/rss/sections/science.xml

Astronomers found a new dwarf galaxy orbiting the Milky Way, raising new possibilities of what may be found beyond our world. Although the discovery is an exciting feat and appears to be sudden, experts cannot help but feel a tinge of embarrassment. This is because they found that the galaxy called Crater 2 has been there for quite some time now. The question now is, how did Crater 2 manage to pull off its existence without earthlings, with relatively modern space object detectors, knowing? Definitely Not The Size Crater 2 is so enormous and considered to be gigantic that it would be fairly hard to miss it. "Given its half-light radius of ∼1100 pc, Crater 2 is the fourth largest satellite of the Milky Way, surpassed only by the LMC, SMC and the Sgr dwarf," the authors write. The distance of the galaxy to our own Milky Way cannot be blamed either. As Crater 2 has been found orbiting ours, it only means that the dwarf galaxy is a part of the same space community as the Milky Way, much like IC 1613 clean freak galaxy, which is located 2.3 million light-years away from Earth. In comparison, Crater 2 is located at a much closer distance of 380,000 light-years. It was recently discovered by Gabriel Torrealba and colleagues from the University of Cambridge. The mystery then creeps deeper. What is it in Crater 2 that made it obscure from experts' knowledge until now? The answer to this mystery is Crater 2's relatively dark appearance, with it being recognized as among the dimmest galaxies in the entire universe. This then logically nulls the closeness and large size of Crater 2 in letting the researchers discover it. With these characteristics, Crater 2 has been dubbed "The Feeble Giant." Because of technological advancements, modern equipment and novel approaches to studying the universe, it is not surprising that astronomers will discover more galaxies in the future. Crater 2 was specifically detected after analyzing photos captured using a big telescope stationed in Chile. In fact, other scientists have expressed their interest in engaging similar researches to discover more dark galaxies. The study was published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

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Site: http://www.nature.com/nature/current_issue/

Human ES cell line H9 (WA-09) and derivatives (SOX10::GFP; SYN::ChR2-EYFP; SYN::EYFP;PHOX2B:GFP;EF1::RFP Ednrb−/−) as well as two independent human iPS cell lines (healthy and familial dysautonomia, Sendai-based, OMSK (Cytotune)) were maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Global Stem) in knockout serum replacement (KSR; Life Technologies, 10828-028) containing human ES cell medium as described previously7. Cells were subjected to mycoplasma testing at monthly intervals and short tandem repeats (STR) profiled to confirm cell identity at the initiation of the study. Human ES cells were plated on matrigel (BD Biosciences, 354234)-coated dishes (105 cells cm−2) in ES cell medium containing 10 nM FGF2 (R&D Systems, 233-FB-001MG/CF). Differentiation was initiated in KSR medium (knockout DMEM plus 15% KSR (Life Technologies, 10828-028), l-glutamine (Life Technologies, 25030-081), NEAA (Life Technologies, 11140-050)) containing LDN193189 (100 nM, Stemgent) and SB431542 (10 μM, Tocris). The KSR medium was gradually replaced with increasing amounts of N2 medium from day 4 to day 10 as described previously7. For CNC induction, cells were treated with 3 μM CHIR99021 (Tocris Bioscience, 4423) in addition to LDN193189 and SB431542 from day 2 to day 11. ENC differentiation involves additional treatment with retinoic acid (1 μM) from day 6 to day 11. For deriving MNCs, LDN193189 is replaced with BMP4 (10 nM, R&D, 314-BP) and EDN3 (10 nM, American Peptide company, 88-5-10B) from day 6 to day 11 (ref. 3). The differentiated cells are sorted for CD49D at day 11. CNS precursor control cells were generated by treatment with LDN193189 and SB431542 from day 0 to day 11 as previously described7. Throughout the manuscript, day 0 is the day the medium is switched from human ES cell medium to LDN193189 and SB431542 containing medium. Days of differentiation in text and figures refer to the number of days since the pluripotent stage (day 0). For immunofluorescence, the cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (Affymetrix-USB, 19943) for 20 min, then blocked and permeabilized using 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) (Thermo Scientific, 23209) and 0.3% Triton X-100 (Sigma, T8787). The cells were then incubated in primary antibody solutions overnight at 4 °C and stained with fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibodies at room temperature for 1 h. The stained cells were then incubated with DAPI (1 ng ml−1, Sigma, D9542-5MG) and washed several times before imaging. For flow cytometry analysis, the cells are dissociated with Accutase (Innovative Cell Technologies, AT104) and fixed and permeabilized using BD Cytofix/Cytoperm (BD Bioscience, 554722) solution, then washed, blocked and permeabilized using BD Perm/Wash buffer (BD Bioscience, 554723) according to manufacturer’s instructions. The cells are then stained with primary (overnight at 4 °C) and secondary (30 min at room temperature) antibodies and analysed using a flow Cytometer (Flowjo software). A list of primary antibodies and working dilutions is provided in Supplementary Table 4. The PHOX2A antibody was provided by J.-F. Brunet (rabbit, 1:800 dilution). Fertilized eggs (from Charles River Farms) were incubated at 37 °C for 50 h before injections. A total of 2 × 105 CD49D-sorted, RFP-labelled NC cells were injected into the intersomitic space of the vagal region of the embryos targeting a region between somite 2 and 6 (HH 14 embryo, 20–25 somite stage). The embryos were collected 36 h later for whole-mount epifluorescence and histological analyses. For RNA sequencing, total RNA was extracted using RNeasy RNA purification kit (Qiagen, 74106). For qRT–PCR assay, total RNA samples were reverse transcribed to cDNA using Superscript II Reverse Transcriptase (Life Technologies, 18064-014). qRT–PCR reactions were set up using QuantiTect SYBR Green PCR mix (Qiagen, 204148). Each data point represents three independent biological replicates. ENC cells from the 11-day induction protocol were aggregated into 3D spheroids (5 million cells per well) in Ultra Low Attachment 6-well culture plates (Fisher Scientific, 3471) and cultured in Neurobasal (NB) medium supplemented with l-glutamine (Gibco, 25030-164), N2 (Stem Cell Technologies, 07156) and B27 (Life Technologies, 17504044) containing CHIR99021 (3 μM, Tocris Bioscience, 4423) and FGF2 (10 nM, R&D Systems, 233-FB-001MG/CF). After 4 days of suspension culture, the spheroids are plated on poly-ornithine/laminin/fibronectin (PO/LM/FN)-coated dishes (prepared as described previously26) in neurobasal (NB) medium supplemented with l-glutamine (Gibco, 25030-164), N2 (Stem Cell Technologies, 07156) and B27 (Life Technologies, 17504044) containing GDNF (25 ng ml−1, Peprotech, 450-10) and ascorbic acid (100 μM, Sigma, A8960-5G). The ENC precursors migrate out of the plated spheroids and differentiate into neurons in 1–2 weeks. The cells were fixed for immunostaining or collected for gene expression analysis at days 25, 40 and 60 of differentiation. Mesoderm specification is carried out in STEMPRO-34 (Gibco, 10639-011) medium. The ES cells are subjected to activin A treatment (100 ng ml−1, R&D, 338-AC-010) for 24 h followed by BMP4 treatment (10 ng ml−1, R&D, 314-BP) for 4 days9. The cells are then differentiated into SMC progenitors by treatment with PDGF-BB (5 ng ml−1, Peprotech, 100-14B), TGFb3 (5 ng ml−1, R&D systems, 243-B3-200) and 10% FBS. The SMC progenitors are expandable in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. The SMC progenitors were plated on PO/LM/FN-coated culture dishes (prepared as described previously26) 3 days before addition of ENC-derived neurons. The neurons were dissociated (using accutase, Innovative Cell Technologies, AT104) at day 30 of differentiation and plated onto the SMC monolayer cultures. The culture is maintained in neurobasal (NB) medium supplemented with l-glutamine (Gibco, 25030-164), N2 (Stem Cell Technologies, 07156) and B27 (Life Technologies, 17504044) containing GDNF (25 ng ml−1, Peprotech, 450-10) and ascorbic acid (100 μM, Sigma, A8960-5G). Functional connectivity was assessed at 8–16 weeks of co-culture. SMC-only and SMC-ENC-derived neuron co-cultures were subjected to acetylcholine chloride (50 μM, Sigma, A6625), carbamoylcholine chloride (10 μM, Sigma,C4382) and KCl (55 mM, Fisher Scientific, BP366–500) treatment, 3 months after initiating the co-culture. Optogenetic stimulations were performed using a 450-nm pigtailed diode pumped solid state laser (OEM Laser, PSU-III LED, OEM Laser Systems, Inc.) achieving an illumination between 2 and 4 mW mm−2. The pulse width was 4 ms and stimulation frequencies ranged from 2 to 10 Hz. For the quantification of movement, images were assembled into a stack using Metamorph software and regions with high contrast were identified (labelled yellow in Supplementary Fig. 5). The movement of five representative high-contrast regions per field was automatically traced (Metamorph software). Data are presented in kinetograms as movement in pixels in x and y direction (distance) with respect to the previous frame. We used the previously described method for generation of tissue-engineered colon11. In brief, the donor colon tissue was collected and digested into organoid units using dispase (Life Technologies, 17105-041) and collagenase type 1 (Worthington, CLS-1). The organoid units were then mixed immediately (without any in vitro culture) with CD49D-purified human ES-cell-derived ENC precursors (day 15 of differentiation) and seeded onto biodegradable polyglycolic acid scaffolds (2-mm sheet thickness, 60 mg cm−3 bulk density; porosity >95%, Concordia Fibres) shaped into 2 mm long tubes with poly-l lactide (PLLA) (Durect Corporation). The seeded scaffolds were then placed onto and wrapped in the greater omentum of the adult (>2 months old) NSG mice. Just before the implantation, these mice were irradiated with 350 cGy. The seeded scaffolds were differentiated into colon-like structures inside the omentum for 4 additional weeks before they were surgically removed for tissue analysis. All mouse procedures were performed following NIH guidelines, and were approved by the local Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), the Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) as well as the Embryonic Stem Cell Research Committee (ESCRO). We used 3–6-week-old male NSG (NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ) mice or 2–3-week-old Ednrbs-l/s-l (SSL/LeJ) mice27 (n = 12, 6 male, 6 female) for these studies. Animal numbers were based on availability of homozygous hosts and on sufficient statistical power to detect large effects between treatment versus control (Ednrbs-l/s-l) as well as for demonstrating robustness of migration behaviour (NSG). Animals were randomly selected for the various treatment models (NSG and Ednrbs-l/s-l) but assuring for equal distribution of male/female ratio in each group (Ednrbs-l/s-l). All in vivo experiments were performed in a blinded manner. Animals were anaesthetized with isoflurane (1%) throughout the procedure, a small abdominal incision was made, abdominal wall musculature lifted and the caecum is exposed and exteriorized. Warm saline is used to keep the caecum moist. Then 20 μl of cell suspension (2–4 million RFP+ CD49D-purified human ES-cell-derived ENC precursors) in 70% Matrigel (BD Biosciences, 354234) in PBS or 20 μl of 70% Matrigel in PBS only (control-grafted animals) were slowly injected into the caecum (targeting the muscle layer) using a 27-gauge needle. Use of 70% matrigel as carrier for cell injection assured that the cells stayed in place after the injection and prevented backflow into the peritoneum. After injection that needle was withdrawn, and a Q-tip was placed over the injection site for 30 s to prevent bleeding. The caecum was returned to the abdominal cavity and the abdominal wall was closed using 4-0 vicryl and a taper needle in an interrupted suture pattern and the skin was closed using sterile wound clips. After wound closure animals were put on paper on top of their bedding and attended until conscious and preferably eating and drinking. The tissue was collected at different time points (ranging from two weeks to four months) after transplantation for histological analysis. Ednrbs-l/s-l mice were immunosuppressed by daily injections of cyclosporine (10 mg kg−1 i.p, Sigma, 30024). The collected colon samples were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at 4 °C overnight before imaging. Imaging is performed using Maestro fluorescence imaging system (Cambridge Research and Instrumentation). The tissue samples were incubated in 30% sucrose (Fisher Scientific, BP220-1) solutions at 4 °C for 2 days, and then embedded in OCT (Fisher Scientific, NC9638938) and cryosectioned. The sections were then blocked with 1% BSA (Thermo Scientific, 23209) and permeabilized with 0.3% Triton X-100 (Sigma, T8787). The sections are then stained with primary antibody solution at 4 °C overnight and fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody solutions at room temperature for 30 min. The stained sectioned were then incubated with DAPI (1 ng ml−1, Sigma, D9542-5MG) and washed several times before they were mounted with Vectashield Mounting Medium (vector, H1200) and imaged using fluorescent (Olympus IX70) or confocal microscopes (Zeiss SP5). Mice are gavaged with 0.3 ml of dye solution containing 6% carmine (Sigma, C1022-5G), 0.5% methylcellulose (Sigma, 274429-5G) and 0.9 NaCl, using a #24 round-tip feeding needle. The needle was held inside the mouse oesophagus for a few seconds after gavage to prevent regurgitation. After 1 h, the stool colour was monitored for gavaged mice every 10 min. For each mouse, total gastrointestinal transit time is between the time of gavage and the time when red stool is observed. The double nickase CRISPR/Cas9 system28 was used to target the EDNRB locus in EF1–RFP H9 human ES cells. Two guide RNAs were designed (using the CRISPR design tool; http://crispr.mit.edu/) to target the coding sequence with PAM targets ~20 base pairs apart (qRNA #1 target specific sequence: 5′-AAGTCTGTGCGGACGCGCCCTGG-3′, RNA #2 target specific sequence: 5′-CCAGATCCGCGACAGGCCGCAGG-3′). The cells were transfected with guide RNA constructs and GFP-fused Cas9-D10A nickase. The GFP-expressing cells were FACS purified 24 h later and plated in low density (150 cells cm−2) on mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The colonies were picked 7 days later and passaged twice before genomic DNA isolation and screening. The targeted region of EDNRB gene was PCR amplified (forward primer: 5′-ACGCCTTCTGGAGCAGGTAG-3′, reverse primer: 5′-GTCAGGCGGGAAGCCTCTCT-3′) and cloned into Zero Blunt TOPO vector (Invitrogen, 450245). To ensure that both alleles (from each ES cell colony) are represented and sequenced, we picked 10 bacterial clones (for each ES cell clone) for plasmid purification and subsequent sequencing. The clones with bi-allelic nonsense mutations were expanded and differentiated for follow-up assays. The ENC cells are plated on PO/LM/FN coated (prepared as described previously26) 96-well or 48-well culture plates (30,000 cm−2). After 24 h, the culture lawn is scratched manually using a pipette tip. The cells are given an additional 24–48 h to migrate into the scratch area and fixed for imaging and quantification. The quantification is based on the percentage of the nuclei that are located in the scratch area after the migration period. The scratch area is defined using a reference well that was fixed immediately after scratching. Migration of cells was quantified using the open source data analysis software KNIME29 (http://knime.org) with the ‘quantification in ROI’ plug-in as described in detail elsewhere30. To quantify proliferation, FACS-purified ENC cells were assayed using CyQUANT NF cell proliferation Assay Kit (Life Technologies, C35006) according to manufacturer’s instructions. In brief, to generate a standard, cells were plated at various densities and stained using the fluorescent DNA binding dye reagent. Total fluorescence intensity was then measured using a plate reader (excitation at 485 nm and emission detection at 530 nm). After determining the linear range, the CD49D+ wild-type and Ednrb−/− ENC precursors were plated (6,000 cell cm−2) and assayed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The cells were cultured in neurobasal (NB) medium supplemented with l-glutamine (Gibco, 25030-164), N2 (Stem Cell Technologies, 07156) and B27 (Life Technologies, 17504044) containing CHIR99021 (3 μM, Tocris Bioscience, 4423) and FGF2 (10 nM, R&D Systems, 233-FB-001MG/CF) during the assay. To monitor the viability of wild-type and Ednrb−/− ENC precursors, cells were assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity using CytoTox 96 cytotoxicity assay kit (Promega, G1780). In brief, the cells are plated in 96-well plates at 30,000 cm−2. The supernatant and the cell lysate is collected 24 h later and assayed for LDH activity using a plate reader (490 nm absorbance). Viability is calculated by dividing the LDH signal of the lysate by total LDH signal (from lysate plus supernatant). The cells were cultured in neurobasal (NB) medium supplemented with l-glutamine (Gibco, 25030-164), N2 (Stem Cell Technologies, 07156) and B27 (Life Technologies, 17504044) containing CHIR99021 (3 μM, Tocris Bioscience, 4423) and FGF2 (10 nM, R&D Systems, 233-FB-001MG/CF) during the assay. The chemical compound screening was performed using the Prestwick Chemical Library. The ENC cells were plated in 96-well plates (30,000 cm−2) and scratched manually 24 h before addition of the compounds. The cells were treated with two concentrations of the compounds (10 μM and 1 μM). The plates were fixed 24 h later for total plate imaging. The compounds were scored based on their ability to promote filling of the scratch in 24 h. The compounds that showed toxic effects (based on marked reduction in cell numbers assessed by DAPI staining) were scored 0, compounds with no effects were scored 1, compounds with moderate effects were scored 2, and compounds with strong effects (that resulted in complete filling of the scratch area) were scored 3 and identified as hit compounds. The hits were further validated to ensure reproducibility. The cells were treated with various concentrations of the selected hit compound (pepstatin A) for dose response analysis. The optimal dose (10 μM based on optimal response and viability) was used for follow-up experiments. For the pre-treatment experiments, cells were CD49D purified at day 11 and treated with pepstatin A from day 12 to day 15 followed by transplantation into the colon wall of NSG mice. The cells were cultured in neurobasal (NB) medium supplemented with l-glutamine (Gibco, 25030-164), N2 (Stem Cell Technologies, 07156) and B27 (Life Technologies, 17504044) containing CHIR99021 (3 μM, Tocris Bioscience, 4423) and FGF2 (10 nM, R&D Systems, 233-FB-001MG/CF) during the assay. To inhibit BACE2, the ENC precursors were treated with 1 μM β-secretase inhibitor IV (CAS 797035-11-1; Calbiochem). To knockdown BACE2, cells were dissociated using accutase (Innovative Cell Technologies, AT104) and reverse-transfected (using Lipofectamine RNAiMAX-Life Technologies, 13778-150) with an siRNA pool (SMARTpool: ON-TARGETplus BACE2 siRNA, Dharmacon, L-003802-00-0005) or four different individual siRNAs (Dharmacon, LQ-003802-00-0002, 2 nmol). The knockdown was confirmed by qRT–PCR measurement of BACE2 mRNA levels in cells transfected with the BACE2 siRNAs versus the control siRNA pool (ON-TARGETplus Non-targeting Pool, Dharmacon, D-001810-10-05). The transfected cells were scratched 24 h after plating and fixed 48 h later for migration quantification. The cells were cultured in neurobasal (NB) medium supplemented with l-glutamine (Gibco, 25030-164), N2 (Stem Cell Technologies, 07156) and B27 (Life Technologies, 17504044) containing CHIR99021 (3 μM, Tocris Bioscience, 4423) and FGF2 (10 nM, R&D Systems, 233-FB-001MG/CF) during the assay. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. and were derived from at least three independent experiments. Data on replicates (n) is given in figure legends. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student’s t-test (comparing two groups) or ANOVA with Dunnett test (comparing multiple groups against control). Distribution of the raw data approximated normal distribution (Kolmogorov–Smirnov normality test) for data with sufficient number of replicates to test for normality. Survival analysis was performed using a log-rank (Mantel–Cox) test. Z-scores for primary hits were calculated as Z = (x − μ)/σ, in which x is the migration score value and is 3 for all hit compounds; μ is the mean migration score value, and σ is the standard deviation for all compounds and DMSO controls (n = 224).

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Site: http://www.materialstoday.com/news/

Mitsubishi Rayon Co Ltd plans to build a new plant in Vilshofen, Germany, for the production of sheet molding compound (SMC) intermediate materials. The factory is expected to begin operation in September 2016 with an annual production capacity of 1,000 metric tons, to go up to 6,000 tons as demand increases in the European market. After completion of the expansion, MRC's overall production capacity will be 9,000 tons, triple the current production capacity at its Toyohashi plant in Japan. According to the company, the new plant will reinforce and expand its carbon fiber and composite materials business in Europe following tighter fuel efficiency regulations in the European automobile market and a move toward vehicle weight reduction in mass-produced cars. Using the intermediate materials, elaborate exterior panel parts can be press-molded in a shorter period of time, it says. SMC consists of fibers several centimeters long dispersed in resin which can be press-molded into automotive parts. When compared to prepreg intermediate materials (carbon fiber fabric impregnated with resin), SMC can be used for molding complicatedly shaped parts in a shorter period of time, Mitsubishi Rayon claims. It has uniform mechanical characteristics similar to metal, lighter weight and higher strength. This story is reprinted from material from Mitsubishi Rayon, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

« Toyota developing wearable mobility device for the blind and visually impaired | Main | Juniper forecasts HEV & EV sales to total 17M by 2020; Tesla ranked leading EV manufacturer » Continental Structural Plastics (CSP) has signed a memorandum of understanding with Mitsubishi Rayon (MRC), regarding the development and manufacturing of innovative carbon fiber structural components for the automotive industry in North America. Under the MoU, CSP and MRC will begin detailed studies to substantiate the establishment of an equity-based joint venture. Specifically, the new joint venture will produce compression molded components made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic materials, which could include carbon fiber sheet molded compound (SMC) and/or Pre-preg carbon fiber Compression Molding (PCM).These components will include Class A body panels, as well as non-class A structural automotive applications including: pillars; engine cradles or supports; radiator supports; frames and rails; bumper beams; underbody shields; door inners and intrusion beams. JEC Innovation Award. Continental Structural Plastics recently received the JEC World 2016 Innovation Award in the Automotive Exterior Parts category for its multi-material decklid concept. This decklid, featuring a TCA Ultra Lite outer and a carbon fiber resin transfer molded (RTM) inner, weighs 12.11 lbs. (5.5 kg.)—a 13% weight savings over a similar decklid made from aluminum. The decklid was developed as part of a study to compare the weight of decklids made from steel or aluminum versus a multi-material approach. Also key was reducing the cycle time associated with the use of carbon fiber. The carbon fiber RTM structural inner component represents a number of breakthroughs in the use of recycled carbon fiber materials for cost-effective mass production applications. Using preformed carbon fiber mats infused with a Hexion fast-cure, epoxy-based resin played a key role in CSP being able to successfully reduce the cycle time associated with high carbon fiber content RTM. From injection time to cure to completion, the total cycle time for this component is 2.5 to 3 minutes. In addition, the infusion tool used to create functional prototypes was developed and produced using 3D printing. The entire process can be completed in 2-3 weeks. This is significant because it will enable CSP to take design data and provide an OEM with a functional prototype part in a significantly reduced timeframe than what is currently customary. Finally, to further reduce costs and control quality, CSP is developing a process to manufacture its own carbon fiber mat using various carbon fiber content. Introduced by CSP in 2014, and currently in production on the 2016 Chevrolet C7 Corvette, TCA Ultra Lite is a 1.2 specific gravity material that offers as much as a 40% weight savings over standard density composite materials. It provides automakers an opportunity to achieve a Class A finish with a material that is E-coat oven capable, and resistant to corrosion, dents and dings. Because there is no degradation of mechanical properties, lighter parts molded with TCA Ultra Lite do not have to be made thicker, or incorporate structural reinforcements, to maintain the desired performance qualities. Specifically, Ultra Lite technology uses treated glass bubbles to replace Calcium Carbonate (CaCO ), allowing the resin to adhere to the matrix and increase the interfacial strength between the bubble and the resin. This is a patented treatment technology that results in a more robust resin mix that makes molded parts more resistant to handling damage, and prevents the micro-cracks that cause paint pops, pits and blistering. The product also uses Owens Corning Advantex glass technology which can be manufactured with lower environmental impact compared to other glass types. Glass reinforced polymers can have a lower global warming potential (GWP) than steel in the production and use phase for automotive applications such as body parts. In addition, TCA Ultra Lite provides the benefits that come with using a composite over a metal, including significantly reduced tooling costs (50 percent or more, depending on production volumes) and the ability to achieve unique design cues such as deep draws that can’t be achieved with a stamped metal. In late 2015, CSP received the CAMX Unsurpassed Innovation Award and the SPE Grand Award for this material technology.

News Article | April 28, 2016
Site: http://www.sciencemag.org

The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) are small nearby galaxies and a familiar sight in the Southern Hemisphere sky, easily visible to the naked eye. Welty et al. – [Read More]

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