Choi C.S.,SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical science |
Choi C.S.,Konkuk University |
Hong M.,Dankook University |
Hong M.,Kyung Hee University |
And 15 more authors.
Biomolecules and Therapeutics | Year: 2014
A substantial proportion of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display hyperactivity as a comorbid symptom. Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy produces ASD-like core behavioral phenotypes as well as hyperactivity in offspring both in human and experimental animals, which makes it a plausible model to study ASD-related neurobiological processes. In this study, we examined the effects of two of currently available attention defecit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications, methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) targeting dopamine and norepinephrine transporters (DAT and NET), respectively, on hyperactive behavior of prenatally VPA-exposed rat offspring. In the prefrontal cortex of VPA exposed rat offspring, both mRNA and protein expression of DAT was increased as compared with control. VPA function as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the acetylation of histone bound to DAT gene promoter was increased in VPA-exposed rat offspring suggesting epigenetic mechanism of DAT regulation. Similarly, the expression of NET was increased, possibly via increased histone acetylation in prefrontal cortex of VPA-exposed rat offspring. When we treated the VPA-exposed rat offspring with ATX, a NET selective inhibitor, hyperactivity was reversed to control level. In contrast, MPH that inhibits both DAT and NET, did not produce inhibitory effects against hyperactivity. The results suggest that NET abnormalities may underlie the hyperactive phenotype in VPA animal model of ASD. Profiling the pharmacological responsiveness as well as investigating underlying mechanism in multiple models of ASD and ADHD may provide more insights into the neurobiological correlates regulating the behavioral abnormalities. © 2014 The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. Source