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Portland, ME, United States

Jennings A.P.,Small Carnivores Research and Conservation | Naim M.,SMART Research Institute SMARTRI | Advento A.D.,SMART Research Institute SMARTRI | Aryawan A.A.K.,SMART Research Institute SMARTRI | And 4 more authors.
Mammal Research

In Southeast Asia, the conversion of native forests to oil palm plantations threatens tropical biodiversity, but very little is known about the impacts of oil palm cultivation on small carnivore species. To determine the diversity and occupancy of small carnivores within oil palm plantations and to investigate possible factors that might affect their presence within oil palm, we used camera-traps within two oil palm plantations in central Sumatra, analysed the data using occupancy modelling and tested whether two covariates (distance to the edge of the oil palm habitat and distance from extensive areas of lowland forest) affected the model parameters for each small carnivore species. From 3164 camera-trap days, we detected only three small carnivores: leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) and Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga), which indicates that there was a low diversity of small carnivores within the oil palm plantations. Both the leopard cat and common palm civet were found deep within the oil palm, whereas the Malay civet was only detected near the edge in one of the plantations. The leopard cat and common palm civet had very high occupancy values, whereas the Malay civet had low values for both occupancy and detection probability. Neither covariate affected occupancy of the leopard cat and common palm civet, but distance from the edge of the oil palm habitat did influence their detection probabilities. Malay civet occupancy decreased with distance from the oil palm edge, and detection probability was affected by distance from extensive areas of lowland forest. Forests and rest/den site availability are suggested to be important features for small carnivores with oil palm-dominated landscapes. © 2015, Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland. Source

Veron G.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Patou M.-L.,Biotope | Jennings A.P.,Small Carnivores Research and Conservation
Mammalian Biology

The small-toothed palm civet Arctogalidia trivirgata is a small, arboreal civet belonging to the subfamily Paradoxurinae (Viverridae) that is found in northeast India, southern China, and Southeast Asia. This is an understudied species with a debated taxonomy. Variation in coat colour and pattern has driven authors to describe numerous taxa of this civet species, but no recent taxonomic revision and no intraspecific molecular study have been conducted. We sequenced three mitochondrial and one nuclear markers in order to study the geographical genetic structure of the small-toothed palm civet and to evaluate the genetic divergence between different populations, and we examined various morphological features. Our molecular results showed that the small-toothed palm civet forms two divergent clades: Clade 1: mainland Southeast Asia, Sumatra and nearby small islands, and Java; and Clade 2: Borneo. Further investigations are needed to verify the possible specific status of these two clades. The populations north of the Isthmus of Kra are characterized by a white ear tip and form a separate clade from the populations south of the Isthmus of Kra, but their genetic divergence does not warrant a specific status. The Javan small-toothed palm civet was found to have a low genetic divergence to the nearby populations within Clade 1. Further studies are needed in order to confirm these results and to revise the taxonomy of the small-toothed palm civet. © 2015 Deutsche Gesellschaft fü Säugetierkunde. Source

Veron G.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Patou M.-L.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Debruyne R.,French Natural History Museum | Couloux A.,Center National Of Sequencage | And 5 more authors.
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society

Although recent molecular studies have clarified the phylogeny of mongooses, the systematics of the Southeast Asian species was incomplete as the collared mongoose Urva semitorquata and some debatable taxa (Hose's mongoose, Palawan mongoose) were missing in the analyses. We sequenced three mitochondrial (cytochrome b, ND2, control region) and one nuclear (beta-fibrinogen intron 7) fragments of the Southeast Asian mongooses to clarify the systematic position of the different species and populations occurring in this region. Our results showed that the collared mongoose is closely related to the crab-eating mongoose Urva urva, these two species forming a sister-group to the short-tailed mongoose Urva brachyura. Despite Sumatran collared mongooses having a peculiar orange phenotype, we showed that they exhibited very little genetic divergence to individuals from Borneo. In contrast, the populations of the short-tailed mongoose from Borneo were strongly divergent to those from Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, and these might represent separate species. Within the crab-eating mongoose, we observed little geographical genetic structure. Our study suggests that Hose's mongoose is not a valid species. The Palawan mongooses did not cluster with the other populations of the short-tailed mongoose; they were closer to the collared mongoose and should be included in this species. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London. Source

Veron G.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Patou M.-L.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Toth M.,Hungarian Natural History Museum | Goonatilake M.,National Museum | Jennings A.P.,Small Carnivores Research and Conservation
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research

Using molecular data and morphological features, we investigated the species limits and genetic diversity among populations of the Asian palm civets of the genus Paradoxurus. Our main objectives were to determine the number of species within Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and to test the validity of the newly proposed species within Paradoxurus zeylonensis. Fragments of two mitochondrial (Cytochrome b, Control Region) and one nuclear (intron 7 of the beta fibrinogen) markers were sequenced from 128 individuals of P. hermaphroditus, P. zeylonensis and Paradoxurus jerdoni. DNA sequences were analysed using phylogenetic and haplotype network methods. Our analyses confirmed that P. hermaphroditus comprises three major clades, which should be recognized as separate species: P. hermaphroditus (Indian and Indochinese regions), Paradoxurus musangus (mainland Southeast Asia, Sumatra, Java and other small Indonesian islands) and Paradoxurus philippinensis (Mentawai Islands, Borneo and the Philippines). Furthermore, we have proposed that there are two subspecies within both P. musangus and P. philippinensis, and there might be at least two or three subspecies within P. hermaphroditus. We found a very low genetic diversity and no geographical structure within P. zeylonensis and did not find any support for splitting P. zeylonensis into several species nor subspecies. Finally, we confirmed that P. jerdoni and P. zeylonensis are sister species. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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