North Ryde, Australia
North Ryde, Australia

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Greenwell C.M.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital | Epstein S.E.,University of California at Davis | Brain P.H.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital
Australian Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine if differing gauge (G) needles used for venipuncture altered the automated platelet count and coagulation profile (prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)) in clinically healthy dogs. Design: Prospective, observational, randomised, clinical study. Methods: We enrolled 20 clinically healthy dogs. Blood was collected via direct venipuncture of the jugular veins with 21G, 23G and 25G needles in a random order. Automated haematology and automated coagulation times were performed on the blood samples. Values were analysed for differences among the needle gauges and also the order of sample collection. Results: No difference was found in the automated platelet count or automated coagulation times for the three needle gauges used or the order in which the samples were collected. Conclusion: Venipuncture can be performed with a 21G, 23G or 25G needle to obtain blood from dogs for automated platelet count and PT/aPTT measurement without affecting the results. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.


Groth A.D.,University of California at Davis | Groth A.D.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital | Contreras M.T.,University of California at San Francisco | Kado-Fong H.K.,University of California at Davis | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Objectives: To assess in vitro the antiviral efficacy against feline herpesvirus (FHV-1) and cytotoxicity for cultured feline cells of famciclovir and its metabolites, BRL 42359 and penciclovir. To investigate the effect of timing of penciclovir application on in vitro antiviral activity. Procedures: Plaque reduction assays were used to estimate antiviral efficacy of all compounds and the effect of penciclovir exposure before or after exposure to a FHV-1 field isolate. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by assessing cell morphology and viable cell number for 72 h following exposure to each compound. Results: The penciclovir concentration that inhibited FHV-1-induced plaque formation by 50% (IC50) was 0.86 μg/mL (3.4 μm). Famciclovir and BRL 42359 had no antiviral effect against FHV-1 at any concentration assessed. Antiviral activity was significantly enhanced when cells were exposed to 4 μm penciclovir (approximate IC50) for 1 h but not for 24 h before viral adsorption. Delaying exposure of cells to penciclovir for 1, 2, or 4 h after viral adsorption significantly enhanced antiviral activity. Relative to untreated control wells, >88% of cells remained viable when exposed to famciclovir (100 μm), BRL 42359 (1.06 mm), or penciclovir (40 μm) for 72 h. No morphologic evidence of cytotoxicity was noted. Conclusions: Penciclovir demonstrates potent antiviral activity against FHV-1 and may be effective at lower tissue, tear, and plasma concentrations than previously targeted. The duration of in vitro antiviral effect of penciclovir suggests that frequent famciclovir administration may be necessary in vivo. Famciclovir and BRL 42359 showed no signs of in vitro cytotoxicity. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.


Ravens P.A.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital | Xu B.J.,University of Sydney | Vogelnest L.J.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital
Veterinary Dermatology | Year: 2014

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is recognized as a common cause of pruritus in cats, but it remains incompletely characterized. Hypothesis/Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate cases of confirmed feline AD. Animals: Fourty-five cats from a dermatology referral practice (2001-2012). Methods: A retrospective case record review was carried out using strict diagnostic criteria, including exclusion of flea-bite hypersensitivity and adverse food reaction. Results: Disease prevalence was 12.5%, with domestic mixed (n = 24), Abyssinian (n = 6) and Devon rex (n = 3) cat breeds predisposed. Median age of onset was 2 years (62% <3 years; 22% >7 years; range 3 months to 12 years). Common presentations were severe (82%), nonseasonal (82%), waxing/waning (36%) pruritus, with alopecia/crusting/excoriations and/or erosions/ulceration (73%). Miliary dermatitis (20%) and eosinophilic granuloma complex lesions (27%) occurred. The face/head (71%), ventral abdomen (51%), neck (51%), limbs (38%), pinnae (31%), dorsum/rump (31%) and feet (16%) were frequently affected sites; lesions were restricted to the head/neck in only five cats (11%). Concurrent otitis externa (16%), superficial bacterial pyoderma (49%), Malassezia dermatitis (7%), flea-bite hypersensitivity (24%) and adverse food reaction (13%) occurred. Strong reactions on intradermal allergen testing were common (68%; 19 of 30), most frequently to pollens (61%) and/or insects (46%). Good response to ciclosporin (100%; 10 of 10), systemic glucocorticoids (55%; 22 of 40) and allergen-specific immunotherapy (57%; 13 of 23) and good/partial response to antihistamines (67%; 22 of 33) were reported. Conclusions and clinical importance: The prevalence of feline AD was higher than previously suggested, and breed predispositions were confirmed. Severe nonseasonal pruritus was most common, with a varied spectrum of lesions affecting a range of body areas. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.


Ravens P.A.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital | Vogelnest L.J.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital | Piripi S.A.,University of Sydney
Australian Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

Case report: A normolipaemic 7-year-old female spayed Domestic Shorthair was initially presented with a history of pruritus for several years and diagnosed with concurrent atopic dermatitis, flea bite hypersensitivity and adverse food reaction. The hypersensitivities were controlled with cyclosporin, allergen-specific immunotherapy, topical flea control and a restricted diet. Five months after initial presentation, the cat developed a non-healing nodular ulcerated cutaneous lesion in the left axilla and also developed immune-mediated haemolytic anaemic (IMHA). The IMHA was stabilised, but the axillary lesion persisted and progressed to a diffuse, firm, yellowed subcutaneous swelling over the ventral body approximately 20 months later. Histopathology was consistent with cutaneous xanthoma. The cat was normolipaemic and being fed a home-prepared diet of lean kangaroo meat and pumpkin to manage pruritus associated with adverse food reactions. No underlying malignancy was detected on routine screening tests. Conclusion: A diffuse, planar form of cutaneous xanthoma occurring without associated lipaemia has not been previously reported in cats. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.


Greenwell C.M.,University of Sydney | Brain P.H.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital | Dunn A.L.,University of Sydney
Australian Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

Case report: Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) was diagnosed in three Australian Kelpie puppies that were presented for veterinary assessment of lameness. The three puppies were siblings. Each was from a different litter by the same breeding pair. The puppy in case one was seen by the authors, and the puppies in cases two and three were patients at other veterinary hospitals. However, the medical records and radiographs were examined and reviewed for this report. Radiographic investigation of the lameness revealed pathognomonic appearance of MO affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones in all three puppies. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology in one patient. Conclusion: MO is considered a disease of large and giant-breed dogs, being rarely reported in non-large-breed dogs, and has not been reported in the Australian Kelpie, which is considered a medium-breed dog. This case series suggests a previously unreported breed predisposition to MO in the Australian Kelpie. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.


PubMed | University of Sydney, Small Animal Specialist Hospital and Dick White Referrals
Type: | Journal: Veterinary ophthalmology | Year: 2016

To evaluate the 350-mmRetrospective case series.Twenty-eight client-owned dogs (32 eyes) including seven dogs (nine eyes) with primary glaucoma and 21 dogs (23 eyes) with secondary glaucoma.The medical records of all dogs undergoing placement of a 350-mmIOP was maintained <20mmHg in 24 of 32 (75.0%) eyes. Fourteen eyes (43.8%) required no adjunctive treatments to maintain this IOP control. Fewer doses of glaucoma medication were required following surgery. Vision was retained in 18 of 27 (66.7%) eyes with vision at the time of surgery. No eyes that were blind at the time of surgery (n = 5) had restoration of functional vision. Complications following surgery included hypotony (26/32; 81.3%), intraocular hypertension (24/32; 75.0%), and fibrin formation within the anterior chamber (20/32; 62.5%). The average follow-up after placement of the GDD was 361.1 days (median 395.6 days).Efforts to minimize postoperative hypotony and address the fibroproliferative response following placement of a 350-mm


Greenwell C.M.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital | Brain P.H.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital
Journal of Small Animal Practice | Year: 2014

Background: Anecdotal reports suggest a recent high prevalence of aspiration pneumonia in Irish wolfhounds, prompting further investigation into the incidence of the disease in this breed. Objectives: To investigate the possibility that Irish wolfhounds have an increased incidence of aspiration pneumonia, and to consider possible predisposing causes in this breed. Methods: Retrospective review of medical records from the Small Animal Specialist Hospital, Sydney, from January 2008 to December 2012 inclusive to determine the total hospital incidence and individual breed incidences of aspiration pneumonia. Results: The total hospital incidence of aspiration pneumonia was 0·5%. The Irish wolfhound had the highest breed incidence, with 9 of 25 dogs (36%) diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia. Four of the Irish wolfhounds had a predisposing cause identified; one having a choking episode, one having gastric bloat, while two were diagnosed with laryngeal paralysis after it was specifically investigated because of clinical suspicion. Five had no underlying cause of their aspiration pneumonia determined. Clinical Significance: On the basis of the hospital population studied, the Irish wolfhound has a high incidence of aspiration pneumonia. Further investigation into the possible predisposing cause(s) in this breed is warranted. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.


Miller A.J.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital | Cashmore R.G.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital | Marchevsky A.M.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital | Havlicek M.,Small Animal Specialist Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Australian Veterinary Journal | Year: 2016

Objective: Retrospective study to describe clinical experience with a portable single-use negative pressure wound therapy device after application of full-thickness meshed skin grafts to wounds on the distal extremities of seven dogs. Methods: Seven dogs were treated with portable NPWT after receiving skin grafts; six as the result of tumour resection and one for traumatic injury. Medical records were reviewed and data recorded on patient signalment, cause and location of wound, surgical technique, application and maintenance of portable NPWT, graft survival and outcome, and complications encountered with the system. Clinical outcomes: NPWT was provided for between 4 and 7 days. Five patients were discharged from hospital during the treatment period. Application and maintenance of the portable device was technically easy and no major complications were encountered. Minor complications consisted of fluid accumulation in the evacuation tubing. All dogs achieved 100% graft survival. Conclusions: Application and maintenance of the portable device was technically straightforward. All dogs receiving portable NPWT after transfer of a free skin graft to the distal extremity had a successful outcome. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association


PubMed | Small Animal Specialist Hospital
Type: | Journal: Journal of feline medicine and surgery | Year: 2016

A retrospective study was undertaken to review outcomes of keratectomy and corneoconjunctival transposition in cats with superficial and deep corneal sequestra. Information including pertinent history, signalment, ophthalmological findings and postoperative outcome was collected from medical records. Follow-up was obtained by clinical examination, contact with the referring veterinarians and review of medical records or telephone contact with owners. Ninety-seven cats (109 eyes) were included from 2005-2015. The most commonly affected breeds included Persian, Burmese and Himalayan. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.8 years (median 6.5 years; range 8.0 months-18.0 years). A corneal sequestrum in the contralateral eye was diagnosed in 28 cats (28.9%). Recurrent corneal sequestration was diagnosed in eight cats (nine eyes), with recurrence occurring a mean of 703 days after surgery (range 29-1750 days). Age, sex, breed, depth of sequestration and concurrent ocular disease in the contralateral eye were compared between cats with and without recurrence, with no risk factors for recurrence identified.Excellent surgical outcomes have previously been described in a series of 17 cats with superficial and mid-stromal corneal sequestra. This paper adds further information to the literature by describing a larger series of cats, with corneal sequestra affecting the full range of corneal thickness, and good long-term postoperative outcomes.


PubMed | Small Animal Specialist Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Australian veterinary journal | Year: 2016

Retrospective study to describe clinical experience with a portable single-use negative pressure wound therapy device after application of full-thickness meshed skin grafts to wounds on the distal extremities of seven dogs.Seven dogs were treated with portable NPWT after receiving skin grafts; six as the result of tumour resection and one for traumatic injury. Medical records were reviewed and data recorded on patient signalment, cause and location of wound, surgical technique, application and maintenance of portable NPWT, graft survival and outcome, and complications encountered with the system.NPWT was provided for between 4 and 7 days. Five patients were discharged from hospital during the treatment period. Application and maintenance of the portable device was technically easy and no major complications were encountered. Minor complications consisted of fluid accumulation in the evacuation tubing. All dogs achieved 100% graft survival.Application and maintenance of the portable device was technically straightforward. All dogs receiving portable NPWT after transfer of a free skin graft to the distal extremity had a successful outcome.

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