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Salukhov V.V.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy | Demidova T.Y.,Moscow Medical Academy
Diabetes Mellitus | Year: 2016

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) complications. Although hyperglycaemia contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and heart failure in these patients, glucose-lowering strategies did not have a significant effect on reducing CV risk, particularly in patients with a long duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prevalent CV disease (CVD). Sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of anti-hyperglycaemic medications that increase glycaemic control via insulin-dependent mechanism of action associated with increased urinary glucose excretion. In this review, we present an analysis of the Empa-Reg Outcomes investigation, focussed on assessing the CV safety of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of SGLT2. We discuss the impressive results of trials that provide evidence on the cardiac and renal properties of empagliflozin. We present and analyse the current hypothesis on the mechanism of action of glucose-lowering medication, which has such a severe and complex impact on outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes at high CV risk. © Russian Association of Endocrinologists, 2016.

PubMed | Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy and RAS Pavlov Institute of Physiology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neuroscience research | Year: 2016

We performed comparative analyses of the genotype distribution and allelic frequencies of the rs948854 polymorphism (G/A) in the galanin genes promoter in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in healthy matched controls. In total 111 patients and 115 control subjects were included. The analyses revealed that the presence of the minor allele (G) increased susceptibility to MS in men (OR=2.49, P=0.008) but not in women. The presence of the G allele in men was also significantly associated with the late onset of MS. Furthermore, rs948854 polymorphism affected the rate of MS progression depending on the sex of the patients. In woman (typically slowly progressing), the percentage of patients with the slow (<0.5 EDSS score per year) progression rate was significantly reduced (

Gololobov V.G.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Genes and Cells | Year: 2014

The goal of the study was to analyse the features of tissue reactions during reparation of the bone wound following gunshot long bone fracture in human. Analysis of biopsy specimens, i.e. bone splinters, edges of bones fragments and surrounding them tissues taken from 9 male patients undergoing surgical treatment due to gunshot fracture of long bones has been carried out. Histological study using light and electron microscopy has been performed on the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 14th, 23d and 34th days following the injury. It has been shown that newly developed blood vessels are capable for transportation of osteogenic cambial cells into the zone of the fracture thus optimizing osteogenesis. Regenerative endossal osteogenesis found out in this study proved to promote reconstructed osteons formation missing a stage of reticulofibrous bone tissue. It has been shown also that cells carrying osteogenic properties introduced into retained splinters during re-vascularization are responsible for the bone tissue construction. Such fragments served as additional and considerable source of bone regenerate formation. They are considered to be so-called «post-injury organ culture» in vivo. Difference between development of regeneration zone from distal and proximal edges of fractured bones was documented. Ultrastructural changes within osteoblasts, osteocytes and extracellular matrix reflected the intensity of bone tissue formation. Our results have been taken into consideration in routine clinical management and methods of treatment among such patients have been proposed.

Odintsova I.A.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy | Chepurnenko M.N.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy | Komarova A.S.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Genes and Cells | Year: 2014

The review deals with cell sources of histogenesis and regeneration of striated skeletal muscle tissue. Heterogeneity of cambial cells of this tissue as well as an important role of their microenvironment to provide their activation, proliferation, differentiation and specialization is displayed. Issues of myogenic satellite cells cytogenesis within the embryonic and postnatal development are discussed. The data on molecular markers of myosatellitocytes and some other tissue components are provided. Issues of non-myogenic sources of skeletal muscle tissue histogenesis are discussed. The significance of studying a cambial cell reserve for the development of effective treatment modalities of muscular dystrophy is emphasized. An experimental material should be analyzed with consideration of the fundamental theoretical concepts on the regularities of histogenesis, cell differons, the theory of stem cell.

Shestakova M.V.,Moscow State University | Khalimov Y.S.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2013

The review gives detailed information on the state-of-the-art of hypoglycemia (HG) and the results of its Russian and international trials. It is noted that HG should be now regarded as an extremely undesirable glucose-lowering therapy complication that is closely related to the risk of cardiovascular events and higher mortality rates, worse glycemic control, and poorer quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The priority effective therapy tactics for T2DM is to manage the latter without any risk of HG, which can be implemented by the wide clinical application of incretins, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in particular, which have the glucose-lowering activity comparable with that shown by metformin and sulfonylurea drugs, are practically safe when used as monotherapy and significantly enhance the efficiency of therapy without substantially increasing the risk of severe HG when co-administered with other medications.

Deev R.V.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Genes and Cells | Year: 2014

Russian scientist-histologist professor of the Military Medical Academy Alexander Alexandrovich Maximow is one of the founders of conception about stem cells in general, and hematopoietic stem cells, particularly. Started to study the morphology of inflammation, within three decades he explored in detail the hemocytopoiesis in bone, described the different stages of this process. He formulated the idea of «polyblasts», a pluripotent precursor with lymphocyte phenotype (rounded cells with spherical nucleus), which moved out of vascular bed and were able to differentiate both into wandering phagocytic cells and fibroblasts in the inflammation site. The study of hematopoiesis in the evolutionary series of animals from cartilaginous fish to mammals led to the dominance of the hematopoiesis unitary model in embryogenesis and postnatal organisms' life. Despite the serious scientific debates around the world in the future (60-ies of XX century), exactly this model of hematopoiesis has been proved by the method of radiation chimeras and became accepted as a theoretical basis for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Sevruk A.A.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy | Bondarchuk S.V.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy | Jhivopistseva A.M.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Genes and Cells | Year: 2014

Many diseases are accompanied by eosinophilia. Today there are no exact diagnostic criterions that can help at least to assume the direction of dianostic procedures of either reactive (i.e. secondary) or clonal (i.e. oncohaematological) eosinophilia early in the disease management. A number of researches must be done to exclude possible etiology of eosinophilia. As a part of our study, we made up a diagnostic algorithm based on findings of a comparative analysis of hemogramm and bone-marrow hemopoiesis measures in reactive and clonal eosinophiliae patients. 21 patients with high-grade blood eosinophilia (>0,69×109/l) were enrolled in the study.

Gololobov V.G.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Genes and Cells | Year: 2015

The 130th anniversary of academician A.A. Zavarzin, the founder of evolutional histology and the author of fundamental theory of parallel series of tissue development will held in 2016. Being an outstanding scientist and organizer, he managed to create a powerful school of histologists-evolutionists in the Soviet Union. The paper contains short variant of history foundation and analysis of the most outstanding achievements of his school, which are contributing towards perspective development of histology.

PubMed | Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy and Saint Petersburg Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Sudebno-meditsinskaia ekspertiza | Year: 2016

This article was designed to consider the congenital age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects (including the type of the papillary patterns, axial tri-radii, the termini of palmar main lines, the rudiments of palmar lines, the dermatoglyphic ridge count between the stable anatomical structures). The objective of the study was to look for the new diagnostic markers of the biological age. It included the identification of the palm prints obtained from 180 Caucasoid men and 120 women at the age varying from 16 to 80 years. The results of the mathematical and statistical analysis provided the basis for drawing up the list of 18 attributes of palm dermatoglyphics significantly (p<0.05) differing in the frequency of occurrence between the representatives of individual age groups. The methods are proposed allowing to use these findings for the expert evaluation of the age of unknown subjects.

Sivolodskii E.P.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Klinichescheskaya Laboratornaya Diagnostika | Year: 2015

The chromogenic synthetic medium «Klebsiella 5-ASK CHROM-C» was developed for isolation and identification of klebsiellae of species of K.pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K.oxytoca, K.mobilis according chromogenic reaction to enzyme 5-aminosalycilate decarboxylase as a unique marker of genus Klebsiella. The L-proline and L-calcium glutamate are used as a source of nitrogen and carbon in medium. The consistency of composition of growth medium that ensure its regularity. The diagnostic sensitivity of chromogenic medium is 95.3±1. 7%; diagnostic specificity is 100%; analytical sensitivity is 1-2 colony-forming units per ml-1. The identification of Klebsiella is achieved simultaneously with their isolation during 24=48 hours. The test of 5-ASK decarboxylase using two chromogenic mediums ((Klebsiella 5-ASK CHROM-C» permits identifying additionally K.pneumoniae subsp, ozaenae, K.pneumoniae subsp. Rhinoscleromatis.

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