Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy

Saint Petersburg, Russia

Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy

Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Salukhov V.V.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy | Demidova T.Y.,Moscow Medical Academy
Diabetes Mellitus | Year: 2016

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) complications. Although hyperglycaemia contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and heart failure in these patients, glucose-lowering strategies did not have a significant effect on reducing CV risk, particularly in patients with a long duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prevalent CV disease (CVD). Sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of anti-hyperglycaemic medications that increase glycaemic control via insulin-dependent mechanism of action associated with increased urinary glucose excretion. In this review, we present an analysis of the Empa-Reg Outcomes investigation, focussed on assessing the CV safety of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of SGLT2. We discuss the impressive results of trials that provide evidence on the cardiac and renal properties of empagliflozin. We present and analyse the current hypothesis on the mechanism of action of glucose-lowering medication, which has such a severe and complex impact on outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes at high CV risk. © Russian Association of Endocrinologists, 2016.


Lioudyno V.,RAS Pavlov Institute of Physiology | Abdurasulova I.,RAS Pavlov Institute of Physiology | Bisaga G.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy | Skulyabin D.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy | Klimenko V.,RAS Pavlov Institute of Physiology
Journal of Neuroscience Research | Year: 2017

We performed comparative analyses of the genotype distribution and allelic frequencies of the rs948854 polymorphism (G/A) in the galanin gene's promoter in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in healthy matched controls. In total 111 patients and 115 control subjects were included. The analyses revealed that the presence of the minor allele (G) increased susceptibility to MS in men (OR = 2.49, P = 0.008) but not in women. The presence of the G allele in men was also significantly associated with the late onset of MS. Furthermore, rs948854 polymorphism affected the rate of MS progression depending on the sex of the patients. In woman (typically slowly progressing), the percentage of patients with the slow (<0.5 EDSS score per year) progression rate was significantly reduced (χ2 = 5.7, P = 0.017) in the minor allele carriers group (52.6%), in comparison with the wild-type carriers (83.9%). In men (typically quickly progressing), the number of patients with fast progression rate (≥0.75 EDSS score per year) tended to increase in the minor allele carriers group (50%) compared with number of patients with the wild-type carriers (31.3%). These data demonstrate for the first time an association between rs948854 polymorphism and multiple sclerosis and, further, that this association is sex specific. They also point to diagnostic and prognostic benefits of genetic screening of patients with multiple sclerosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Shabalov N.P.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Pediatriya - Zhurnal im G.N. Speranskogo | Year: 2016

The article discusses the ethical problems in modern neonatology: resuscitation of children with extremely low birth weight, neonatal screening, active participation of mothers in nursing of extremely premature children, financing issues and State responsibility for the medical care system, the essential drugs list in neonatology practice, medical personnel specialization, evidencebased medicine principles in neonatology and others. © 2016, Pediatria Ltd. All rights reserved.


Arsentiev V.G.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy | Sergeev Y.S.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Pediatriya - Zhurnal im G.N. Speranskogo | Year: 2017

The article reviews practical aspects of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) diagnostic, difficulty of distinguishing its enteritis-associated clinical form from arthritis of known (secondary) origin, that occurs with participation of HLA system B27 antigen. It analyzes variants of transformations (outcomes) of various JIA forms in adult arthritis. It explains the necessity of successive approaches to arthritis therapy in children and adults. It notes the most vulnerable areas of pediatric arthrology, in particular, the reactive arthritis classification, lack of definite diagnosis and post-streptococcal arthritis treatment. © 2017, Pediatria Ltd. All rights reserved.


The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific ethnic and territorial peculiarities of the papillary patterns on the fingers of the Russians, Kyrghyz, and Uzbeks for the development of the criteria for the purpose of differential diagnostics. The materials for the analysis included the fingerprint cards obtained from 3570 Russians, 118 Kyrghyz, and 73 Uzbeks (men at the age from 14 to 25 years). We compared the data on the occurrence of different types of the papillary patterns. The significance of the differences was estimated with the use of the Student t-test. The comparative analysis of the papillary patterns showed that the Russians had the largest number of the arch patterns (8.2%) in their fingerprint cards whereas the Uzbeks had the lowest number (3.7%) of such patterns. The whorl patterns most frequently occurred in the fingerprint cards of the Kyrgyz (36.9%) whereas relatively few Russians exhibited this pattern (22.3%). Statistically significant differences were documented between the samples from the Russian and the Kyrgyz as well as from the Russians and the Uzbeks (p<0.01) whereas the difference between the Kyrgyz and the Uzbeks was insignificant (p>0.05). The list of 20 informative signs of the greatest diagnostic value is compiled taking into consideration the hand (right or left) and the sequential position of each finger. It is shown that the use of these signs makes it possible to distinguish between the «Russian» and «Kyrgyz» («Uzbek») papillary patterns on several fingers. Because the diagnostically significant combinations of the signs are known to occur but rarely, it is necessary to continue the search for the additional diagnostic traits in order to extend the sphere of practical applicability of the proposed method.Изучили папиллярные узоры пальцев рук русских, киргизов и узбеков с целью поиска дифференциально-диагностических критериев этнотерриториальной принадлежности. Материалом исследования служили дактилокарты 3570 русских, 118 киргизов, 73 узбеков (мужчин в возрасте от 14 до 25 лет). Сравнивали данные о частоте встречаемости типов узоров. Достоверность различий оценивали на основе t-критерия Стьюдента. Сравнительный анализ папиллярных узоров показал, что дуговых узоров больше всего в выборке русских (8,2%), меньше всего в выборке узбеков (3,7%); завитковых узоров больше в выборке киргизов (36,9%), меньше в выборке русских (22,3%). В выборках русских и киргизов (равно как в выборках русских и узбеков) различия статистически достоверны (p<0,01). В выборках киргизов и узбеков различия недостоверны (p>0,05). С учетом руки и порядковой локализации пальца определен перечень из 20 диагностически наиболее информативных признаков. Показано, что на их основе практическое решение альтернативной задачи 'русский или киргиз (узбек)' возможно при исследовании папиллярных узоров нескольких пальцев. Диагностически значимые комбинаторики признаков являются редкими, поэтому для расширения границ практической применимости метода требуется поиск новых диагностически информативных признаков.Изучили папиллярные узоры пальцев рук русских, киргизов и узбеков с целью поиска дифференциально-диагностических критериев этнотерриториальной принадлежности. Материалом исследования служили дактилокарты 3570 русских, 118 киргизов, 73 узбеков (мужчин в возрасте от 14 до 25 лет). Сравнивали данные о частоте встречаемости типов узоров. Достоверность различий оценивали на основе t-критерия Стьюдента. Сравнительный анализ папиллярных узоров показал, что дуговых узоров больше всего в выборке русских (8,2%), меньше всего в выборке узбеков (3,7%); завитковых узоров больше в выборке киргизов (36,9%), меньше в выборке русских (22,3%). В выборках русских и киргизов (равно как в выборках русских и узбеков) различия статистически достоверны (p<0,01). В выборках киргизов и узбеков различия недостоверны (p>0,05). С учетом руки и порядковой локализации пальца определен перечень из 20 диагностически наиболее информативных признаков. Показано, что на их основе практическое решение альтернативной задачи «русский или киргиз (узбек)» возможно при исследовании папиллярных узоров нескольких пальцев. Диагностически значимые комбинаторики признаков являются редкими, поэтому для расширения границ практической применимости метода требуется поиск новых диагностически информативных признаков.


Gololobov V.G.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Genes and Cells | Year: 2014

The goal of the study was to analyse the features of tissue reactions during reparation of the bone wound following gunshot long bone fracture in human. Analysis of biopsy specimens, i.e. bone splinters, edges of bones fragments and surrounding them tissues taken from 9 male patients undergoing surgical treatment due to gunshot fracture of long bones has been carried out. Histological study using light and electron microscopy has been performed on the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 14th, 23d and 34th days following the injury. It has been shown that newly developed blood vessels are capable for transportation of osteogenic cambial cells into the zone of the fracture thus optimizing osteogenesis. Regenerative endossal osteogenesis found out in this study proved to promote reconstructed osteons formation missing a stage of reticulofibrous bone tissue. It has been shown also that cells carrying osteogenic properties introduced into retained splinters during re-vascularization are responsible for the bone tissue construction. Such fragments served as additional and considerable source of bone regenerate formation. They are considered to be so-called «post-injury organ culture» in vivo. Difference between development of regeneration zone from distal and proximal edges of fractured bones was documented. Ultrastructural changes within osteoblasts, osteocytes and extracellular matrix reflected the intensity of bone tissue formation. Our results have been taken into consideration in routine clinical management and methods of treatment among such patients have been proposed.


Shestakova M.V.,Moscow State University | Khalimov Y.S.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2013

The review gives detailed information on the state-of-the-art of hypoglycemia (HG) and the results of its Russian and international trials. It is noted that HG should be now regarded as an extremely undesirable glucose-lowering therapy complication that is closely related to the risk of cardiovascular events and higher mortality rates, worse glycemic control, and poorer quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The priority effective therapy tactics for T2DM is to manage the latter without any risk of HG, which can be implemented by the wide clinical application of incretins, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in particular, which have the glucose-lowering activity comparable with that shown by metformin and sulfonylurea drugs, are practically safe when used as monotherapy and significantly enhance the efficiency of therapy without substantially increasing the risk of severe HG when co-administered with other medications.


Deev R.V.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Genes and Cells | Year: 2014

Russian scientist-histologist professor of the Military Medical Academy Alexander Alexandrovich Maximow is one of the founders of conception about stem cells in general, and hematopoietic stem cells, particularly. Started to study the morphology of inflammation, within three decades he explored in detail the hemocytopoiesis in bone, described the different stages of this process. He formulated the idea of «polyblasts», a pluripotent precursor with lymphocyte phenotype (rounded cells with spherical nucleus), which moved out of vascular bed and were able to differentiate both into wandering phagocytic cells and fibroblasts in the inflammation site. The study of hematopoiesis in the evolutionary series of animals from cartilaginous fish to mammals led to the dominance of the hematopoiesis unitary model in embryogenesis and postnatal organisms' life. Despite the serious scientific debates around the world in the future (60-ies of XX century), exactly this model of hematopoiesis has been proved by the method of radiation chimeras and became accepted as a theoretical basis for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Gololobov V.G.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Genes and Cells | Year: 2015

The 130th anniversary of academician A.A. Zavarzin, the founder of evolutional histology and the author of fundamental theory of parallel series of tissue development will held in 2016. Being an outstanding scientist and organizer, he managed to create a powerful school of histologists-evolutionists in the Soviet Union. The paper contains short variant of history foundation and analysis of the most outstanding achievements of his school, which are contributing towards perspective development of histology.


Sivolodskii E.P.,Sm Kirov Military Medical Academy
Klinichescheskaya Laboratornaya Diagnostika | Year: 2015

The chromogenic synthetic medium «Klebsiella 5-ASK CHROM-C» was developed for isolation and identification of klebsiellae of species of K.pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K.oxytoca, K.mobilis according chromogenic reaction to enzyme 5-aminosalycilate decarboxylase as a unique marker of genus Klebsiella. The L-proline and L-calcium glutamate are used as a source of nitrogen and carbon in medium. The consistency of composition of growth medium that ensure its regularity. The diagnostic sensitivity of chromogenic medium is 95.3±1. 7%; diagnostic specificity is 100%; analytical sensitivity is 1-2 colony-forming units per ml-1. The identification of Klebsiella is achieved simultaneously with their isolation during 24=48 hours. The test of 5-ASK decarboxylase using two chromogenic mediums ((Klebsiella 5-ASK CHROM-C» permits identifying additionally K.pneumoniae subsp, ozaenae, K.pneumoniae subsp. Rhinoscleromatis.

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