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Lesnikar V.,Sluzba za epidemiologiju
Medicus | Year: 2011

Due to its specific epidemiological characteristics, especially the constant changes of the virus each year requiring the re-adjustment of the vaccine, but also because of the fear of the virus outbreak which has the power to start a new pandemic with a large number of patients and an increased number of deaths, influenza has a special place in the infectious diseases surveillance system. The World Health Organization created the Global Influenza Surveillance Network consisting of National Influenza Centres, World Health Organization Collaborative Centres and its referral laboratories. They all work together to collect the information about influenza activity, analyse genetic and antigenic characteristics of collected virus isolates, provide virus strains used for the preparation and production of vaccines, and report on the emergence of new types or subtypes of viruses with a pandemic potential. The effectiveness of this system depends on a timely exchange of high-quality epidemiological and virological information among all participants and on the scope of the global surveillance network. Source


Bradaric N.,Fakulteta Sveucilista u Splitu | Klismanic Z.,Sluzba za epidemiologiju | Ivic I.,Fakulteta Sveucilista u Splitu | Brzovic M.,Sluzba za epidemiologiju
Medicus | Year: 2011

The pandemic influenza virus appeared in Croatia in July 2009, and over these two years it has caused infection in over 100,000 people, of whom at least 86 (60 virologically proven) died. In the County of Split-Dalmatia it affected 15,958 people, causing at least 8 deaths (all virologically proven). The number of hospitalized patients at the University Hospital Center Split was 634, or 3.97% of the total reported number. The number of patients treated at the Intensive Care Unit was 27 (4.26% treated in hospital), of whom 8 died (29.63%). The 2009/2010 epidemic reached its peak in the period from October to December, and that of 2010/2011 in January and February. The 2009/2010 epidemic began in July, and the 2010/2011 epidemic in December. Virus A (H1N1) 2009 was detected using the RT PCR and/or DFA method in all positive nose and throat swabs taken during the 2009/2010 epidemic, while in the season 2010/2011 type B virus was detected in 5 swabs, and virus A (H1N1) 2009 in others. Most hospitalized patients in both seasons were 30 - 64 years old, but there was almost 10% more patients in the season 2009/2010 (39.85%) than in the season 2010/2011 (30.16%). A larger number of hospitalized children under 4 years of age (25.5%) was recorded in the season 2010/2011 than in the season 2009/2010 (18.04%), as well as that of patients older than 65 years (21.74 vs. 16.4%). The distribution of total influenza cases reported to epidemiological services was done only for 2010/2011, and most patients were also 30 - 64 years old (29.43%). The number of patients treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases of the University Hospital Center Split over these two seasons was 10 times higher than the ten-year average of influenza patients treated at this clinic. In this article we will present some clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients suffering from influenza in the County of Split-Dalmatia in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Source


Ban B.,Sluzba za epidemiologiju | Vodopija R.,Sluzba za epidemiologiju | Petrovic M.Z.,Sluzba za epidemiologiju | Matica B.,Sluzba za epidemiologiju
Acta Medica Croatica | Year: 2011

In Croatia, salmonellosis is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of the disease, patient breakdown by age and sex, the most frequently isolated Salmonella serotypes, the length of carriership, and the most frequent source of infection. It was a retrospective analysis, and the sources of data were reports and epidemiological questionnaires administered to those affected with the disease. During the 1990-2009 period, 4492 cases of salmonellosis were reported in the New Zagreb area. The average incidence was 179/100,000. From 2004 onwards, salmonellosis has been on a decrease in Western Europe countries and the USA, whereas in Croatia it is still the leading cause of bacterial food poisoning. The highest incidence is recorded in children up to the age of 1 year (880/100,000), due to low immunity and a lower infective dose. In the observed period (1990-2009), the most frequently isolated serotype was Salmonella enteritidis (84%), followed by Salmonella typhimurium (7%), Salmonella virchow (3%) and Salmonella hadar (2%). There was a slight female predominance (F:M ratio 1.2:1) in salmonellosis cases. All persons affected with the disease are placed under sanitary surveillance including bacteriological control of the stool. Acute carriership was recorded in 2557 (57%) subjects, whereas stool excretion of Salmonella for more than 90 days (chronic carriership) was present in 139 subjects. In nine (0.2%) subjects, chronic carriership was observed for more than a year. During carriership, 22,460 stool samples were examined, i.e. 5 samples per patient on an average. A total of 1033 (23%) subjects were hospitalized for 7 days on an average, whereas 359 persons stayed in day hospital (1-2 days). Out of 3592 (88.4%) subjects with symptoms of the disease reported on their own, Salmonella was detected by the examination of contacts in 413 (9.3%) and carriership proven in 127 (2.3%) subjects examined for sanitary certificate (persons under sanitary surveillance due to the work with food). There were 90% of sporadic cases and 10% of small outbreaks. The most common source of infection were eggs (32%), poultry (10%) and pastry (10%). The outbreaks were mostly confined to the families. Salmonellosis is a major public health and economic problem, as well as an issue pertaining to veterinary and human medicine. The best and most efficient way to prevent the spread of infection by food is reduction of salmonellosis in animal population. Source

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