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Kristianstad, Sweden

Kellerhals M.,Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil | Szalatnay D.,Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil | Hunziker K.,Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil | Duffy B.,Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil | And 5 more authors.
Trees - Structure and Function

Pome fruit genetic resources collections constitute a highly valuable resource not only for fruit breeding but also for direct use by nurseries, growers, and home gardeners. In order to use these resources efficiently and sustainably, reliable evaluation data on fruit and tree characteristics must be generated. Here we focus on pome fruit genetic resources evaluated phenotypically and genotypically for susceptibility to apple scab (Venturiainaequalis), powdery mildew (Podosphaeraleucotricha), fire blight (Erwiniaamylovora), pear rust (Gymnosporangiumsabinae) and storage diseases (e. g., Penicilliumexpansum). Examples are presented of several ongoing projects throughout Europe, with the aim to evaluate fruit genetic resources for disease susceptibility and potential use in breeding and for commercial use. The COST action 864 has fostered international cooperation in the evaluation of pome fruit genetic resources, and some of these evaluations therefore involve research groups from several of the participating countries. © 2011 The Author(s). Source

Nybom H.,SLU Balsgard | Mikicinski A.,Institute of Horticulture | Garkava-Gustavsson L.,SLU Balsgard | Sehic J.,SLU Balsgard | And 2 more authors.
Trees - Structure and Function

Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) causes serious damage to pome fruit orchards, and identification of germplasm with heritable disease resistance is therefore crucial. Two dominant SCAR (sequence characterised amplified region) marker alleles (AE10-375 and GE-8019), flanking a previously identified QTL (quantitative trait locus) for resistance to fire blight on 'Fiesta' linkage group 7 in apple cultivars related to 'Cox's Orange Pippin', were screened on 205 apple cultivars. Both marker alleles were present in 22% of the cultivars, indicating presence of the QTL allele for tolerance, and both were lacking in 25%, indicating homozygosity for absence of the QTL tolerance allele. However, 33% had only the marker allele AE10-375, while 20% had only GE-8019, suggesting that some cultivars with the dominant alleles for both of the flanking markers can carry these on separate chromosomes and may lack the QTL allele for tolerance. In 2009 and 2010, terminal shoots of greenhouse-grown grafted trees of 21 cultivars (only 20 in 2010) were inoculated with Erwinia amylovora. 'Idared' (susceptible) and 'Enterprise' (tolerant) were included as controls. Disease severity for each cultivar was expressed as percentage of necrosis in relation to entire length of shoot, and the ranking of cultivars in 2009 and 2010 was compared with a Spearman rank correlation test, P < 0. 01. A relationship between presence of both flanking marker alleles for tolerance and level of fire blight tolerance was confirmed with a Mann-Whitney U-test, P < 0. 01 in 2009, and P < 0. 05 in 2010. A PCO (principal coordinate) analysis based on band profiles obtained with 12 SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci produced three loose clusters, two of which contained known offspring of 'Cox's Orange Pippin', and one with cultivars that were either unrelated or had an unknown origin. Cases where DNA markers did not predict level of fire blight damage as expected, were, however, as common among descendants of 'Cox's Orange Pippin' as among apparently unrelated cultivars. Obviously the 'Fiesta' LG 7 QTL has some predictive value, both for known 'Cox' relatives and others, but more efficient markers would be desirable for marker-assisted selection. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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