Pamley R.J.,SLR Consulting
Australian Acoustical Society Conference 2012, Acoustics 2012: Acoustics, Development, and the Environment | Year: 2012
When looking to mitigate noise levels in the workplace, the obvious solution is not always the most effective. Many questions arise from the initial assessment that may not be easily answered and solutions can sometimes appear to be counterintuitive. The noise exposure assessment will determine whether noise exposures are above the regulatory limits, but will not explain how these exposures may be mitigated. Sometimes the solution is obvious, particularly in simple scenarios, but it may not be so simple to be sure that any specific area, task or item of equipment is the cause of the problem. Even when the most significant source of the exposure is known, knowing which solution in the hierarchy of controls meets the As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) principle is essential. Even if an engineering or administrative solution is favoured, the effects of the final solution need to be determined if the solution is to be efficient and effective. The following paper presents a case study and lessons learned when determining noise exposure in a complex workplace. Analyses determined not only which employees were receiving the highest noise exposure levels, but which areas/tasks/equipment are contributing most significantly to those exposures. Discussions include the expected effects of various mitigation measures and their application to the noise exposure of those employees. Further analysis demonstrates the importance of producing a tangible benefit when looking at cost-benefit analyses. The approaches used allowed specific methods of mitigation to be modelled and decisions to be made which were considered to be ALARP, be they engineering or administrative controls. By taking this approach the importance of producing a coherent noise action plan, which adhered to the hierarchy of controls is also discussed. The study demonstrates how the processes used met the required noise exposure levels for the most affected employees. It was considered that the results of the study met ALARP, produced an auditable trail for the decision making process in achieving ALARP, and produced the most effective solution at the optimum cost.
Kepp U.,Consultant |
McKendry P.,SLR Consulting
Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Waste and Resource Management | Year: 2011
The landfill directive has created significant problems for local authorities responsible for treatment and disposal of residual municipal solid waste. Measures initiated in Germany involving mechanical-biological treatment processes paved the way for front-end separation of recyclates followed by biological processing, including composting, bio-drying and anaerobic digestion, or combinations of these. The choice of front-end separation process has significant impacts on downstream outputs as biogas and refuses derived or solid recovered fuels. Process combinations can be modelled to identify the potential range of process outputs and energy contents, enabling developers to identify and consider options best suited to their requirements. Four process options were modelled to show the variation in outputs produced. Disposal costs associated with digested/composted organics from residual municipal solid waste has led to further processing to produce solid recovered fuels that can be used to generate energy.Under current financial incentives, using these fuels in thermal conversion technologies to generate power and heat has a significant impact on potential project revenues. Fuel properties in terms of ash content, calorific value and contaminants have an impact on technology selection and on power/heat outputs, applicability of renewable energy incentives and, importantly, operational issues.
Hinze B.,SLR Consulting
INTER-NOISE 2015 - 44th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering | Year: 2015
Noise mapping over geographically large regions such as cities has yet to make a large impact in Australia, with only a handful of noise mapping studies completed over the past decade. Unlike the European Union (EU), where noise maps are used extensively and carried out to achieve numerous outcomes, projects to date in Australia have been undertaken to achieve more specific goals, with additional positive outcomes emerging after project completion. This paper provides an overview of the key noise mapping projects delivered in Australia to date, summarising their primarily goals and outcomes. © 2015 by ASME.
Couth R.,University of KwaZulu - Natal |
Trois C.,University of KwaZulu - Natal |
Vaughan-Jones S.,SLR Consulting
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2011
Data on waste management in Africa are poor. There is uncertainty over the quantity of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management, notably from waste disposal. Data have been collected on solid waste management for territories in Africa and a multi-phase first order decay (FOD) model has been prepared to calculate GHG emissions from waste disposal in accordance with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidance. The multi-phase FOD model calculates the GHG emissions from waste disposal as 8.1% of the total GHG emissions in Africa in 2010. This is similar to the last published figure of 6.8% for 2004 data but considerably more than the world average figure of 3% GHG emissions from landfill. Probability modelling of the data used to calculate the multi-phase FOD model demonstrates that the data are variable, with a high standard deviation. The GHG emission rate from waste disposal in African territories will increase leading to further climate change as the population increases and becomes more urbanised. Whilst the UNFCCC is dedicated to minimise climate change globally, this paper demonstrates the need for the creation, at the African level, of a waste management body to assess the situation country by country with the objective to elaborate country specific recommendations for waste management. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: LCE-03-2014 | Award Amount: 5.80M | Year: 2015
To reduce the total cost of low enthalpy geothermal systems by 20-30 % the project will improve actual drilling/installation technologies and designs of Ground Source Heat Exchangers (GSHEs). This will be combined with an holistic approach for optimum selection, design and implementation of complete systems across different underground and climate conditions. The proposal will focus on one hand on the development of more efficient and safe shallow geothermal systems and the reduction of the installation costs. This will be realized by improving drastically an existing, innovative vertical borehole installation technology of coaxial steel GSHE and by developing a helix type GSHE with a new, innovative installation methodology. These GSHEs will be installed to a depth of 40 50 meters ensuring improved safety and faster permitting. On the other hand, the proposal will develop a decision support (DSS) and other design tools covering the geological aspects, feasibility and economic evaluations based on different plant set-up options, selection, design, installation, commissioning and operation of low enthalpy geothermal systems . These tools will be made publicly available on the web to users, including comprehensive training to lower the market entry threshold. Given that drilling and GSHE technologies are mature but costly, this holistic approach is included in the proposal to bring the overall cost of the total project down, i.e. not just the cost of the GSHE itself but the avoidance of ground response tests, the engineering costs for the design of the GSHE and the integration of heat pumps with building heating and cooling systems. Also the use of novel the heat pumps for higher temperatures developed within the project will reduce the costs in the market for retrofitting buildings. The developments will be demonstrated in six sites with different undergrounds in different climates whilst the tools will be applied to several virtual demo cases.