Slovenian Museum of Natural History

Ljubljana, Slovenia

Slovenian Museum of Natural History

Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Krcmar S.,Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek | Trilar T.,Slovenian Museum of Natural History
Turkish Journal of Zoology | Year: 2017

The present faunistic study of blood sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) has resulted in the recording of the 4 species: Hoplopleura acanthopus (Burmeister, 1839); Ho. affinis (Burmeister, 1839); Polyplax serrata (Burmeister, 1839), and Haematopinus apri Goureau, 1866 newly reported for the fauna of Croatia. Thirteen species and 2 subspecies are currently known from Croatia, belonging to 6 families. Linognathidae and Haematopinidae are the best represented families, with four species each, followed by Hoplopleuridae and Polyplacidae with two species each, Pediculidae with two subspecies, and Pthiridae with one species. Blood sucking lice were collected from 18 different host species. Three taxa, one species, and two subspecies were recorded on the Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758. Two species were recorded on Apodemus agrarius (Pallas, 1771); A. sylvaticus (Linnaeus, 1758); Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758; and Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 per host species. On the remaining 13 host species, one Anoplura species was collected. The recorded species were collected from 17 localities covering 17 fields of 10 × 10 km on the UTM grid of Croatia. © TÜBİTAK.

Durmisi E.,University of Ljubljana | Knap N.,University of Ljubljana | Saksida A.,University of Ljubljana | Trilar T.,Slovenian Museum of Natural History | And 2 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the principal vector of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Slovenia; but until now, there was no information about the prevalence of TBEV infection in Slovenian ticks. We conducted a 2-year survey in 2005 and 2006, during which we were collecting I. ricinus ticks monthly in eight different locations of Slovenia. A total of 4777 I. ricinus ticks were collected: 1515 in year 2005 and 3262 in year 2006. The collected ticks were pooled into groups from which total RNA was extracted. Viral RNA was detected using real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ticks infected with TBEV were found in six of eight locations. Viral RNA was detected in 8 of the 230 pools of ticks collected in 2005 and in 14 of the 442 pools collected in 2006. Prevalence of TBEV infection in Slovenian ticks was determined as 0.47%: 0.54% in 2005 and 0.43% in 2006. The detected infection rate in ticks significantly correlates with the TBEV incidence rates in selected areas. Using the method of sequencing, we have confirmed that the TBEV in ticks is genetically related to the TBEV in Slovenian patients. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Most studies of morphological variability in or among species are performed on adult specimens. However, it has been proven that knowledge of the patterns of size and shape changes and their covariation during ontogeny is of great value for the understanding of the processes that produce morphological variation. In this study, we investigated the patterns of sexual dimorphism, phylogenetic variability, and ontogenetic allometry in the Spermophilus citellus with geometric morphometrics applied to cross-sectional ontogenetic data of 189 skulls from three populations (originating from Burgenland, Banat, and Dojran) belonging to two phylogenetic lineages (the Northern and Southern). Our results indicate that sexual dimorphism in the ventral cranium of S. citellus is expressed only in skull size and becomes apparent just before or after the first hibernation because of accelerated growth in juvenile males. Sexes had the same pattern of ontogenetic allometry. Populations from Banat and Dojran, belonging to different phylogroups, were the most different in size but had the most similar adult skull shape. Phylogenetic relations among populations, therefore, did not reflect skull morphology, which is probably under a significant influence of ecological factors. Populations had parallel allometric trajectories, indicating that alterations in development probably occur prenatally. The species' allometric relations during cranial growth showed characteristic nonlinear trajectories in the two northern populations, with accelerated shape changes in juveniles and continued but almost isometric growth in adults. The adult cranial shape was reached before sexual maturity of both sexes and adult size after sexual maturity. The majority of shape changes during growth are probably correlated with the shift from a liquid to a solid diet and to a lesser degree due to allometric scaling, which explained only 20 % of total shape variation. As expected, viscerocranial components grew with positive and neurocranial with negative allometry. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Krystufek B.,Slovenian Museum of Natural History | Abi-Said M.,American University of Beirut | Hladnik M.,University of Primorska
Zoology in the Middle East | Year: 2013

We studied 1140 bp cytochrome b sequences of social voles from three localities in Lebanon. The results were compared with published sequences representing seven species of social voles. New sequences from Lebanon clustered with reference samples of two species: M. guentheri and M. irani. While M. guentheri was already reported for Lebanon, M. irani is a new addition to the fauna of Lebanon, and the third known record for the species. Animals were collected in two localities above Tripolis at 855 m and 1430 m a.s.l., respectively. © Zoology in the Middle East, 2013.

Zorenko T.,University of Latvia | Koren T.,University of Primorska | Krystufek B.,Slovenian Museum of Natural History
Russian Journal of Theriology | Year: 2014

Microtus schidlovskii is a member of social voles (subgenus Sumeriomys) known from a small range in the highlands of Armenia. Similar voles were reported from Anatolia and Lebanon but were mainly ascribed to another enigmatic species M. irani. We assessed taxonomic position of M. schidlovskii from Armenia and its relationships with seven other species of social voles using molecular data. Phylogenetic reconstructions were based on a 409 bp fragment of cytochrome b M. schidlovskii and reference samples of M. irani, including M. irani karamani from Turkey and Lebanon. M. irani within its current scope emerged to be paraphyletic with respect to M. schidlovskii. Mean K2P distances in the iranischidlovskii- karamani cluster were the highest (0.038) between the irani and the schidlovskii lineages and the lowest (0.028) between the schidlovskii and the karamani lineages; the distance separating the irani and karamani lineages was intermediate (0.032). The irani-schidlovskii-karamani group is genetically more variable than any other species group of social voles. We conclude that voles from Lebanon and Turkey (M. irani karamani) are conspecific with M. schidlovskii from Armenia. Furthermore, genetic divergence between M. irani and M. schidlovskii is the lowest among the species of social voles. And finally, our study restricted geographic scope of M. irani to its type locality in Shiraz. © Russian Journal Of Theriology, 2014.

Knap N.,Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | Korva M.,Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | Dolinsek V.,Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | Sekirnik M.,Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | And 2 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2012

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important causative agent of arboviral infection in Europe, causing neurologic symptoms. The incidence of the disease has greatly increased over the past decades, and in the meantime, some changes in spatial distribution of TBE cases have been observed. Therefore, it is important to recognize the distribution of endemic areas, to use preventive measures successfully. In this study, rodents from all over Slovenia were evaluated as suitable sentinels for TBEV distribution. Rodents from four species (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus sylvaticus, and Apodemus agrarius) were screened for the presence of TBEV antibodies with immunofluorescence assay; the antibodies were detected in 5.9% of sera. The prevalence of infection varied according to the rodent species and according to the region of trapping. Select rodents were also screened for the presence of TBEV RNA in several organs. Both analyses showed higher rate of infection in bank voles, which also produced higher titers of anti-TBEV antibodies and a higher TBEV RNA viral load compared with mice. The regional prevalence of infection in rodents can be correlated with the incidence of disease. Molecular results indicate that the virus can be detected in the organs of the rodents for longer periods, indicating prolonged infections of the rodent hosts by the virus. Rodents can therefore be used as a useful indicator of the circulation of TBEV in an area. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Jerseka M.,Slovenian Museum of Natural History | Kramarb S.,Slovenian National Building And Civil Engineering Institute
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

The baroque chalice made in 1732 contains 456 embedded gemstones and is one the most richly decorated chalices in Slovenia. With the aid of Raman microspectroscopy, in combination with gemology microscopy and ultraviolet fluorescence, individual types of gemstones and certain inclusions were analysed and determined. The chalice was adorned with 24 diamonds, 93 rubies, 4 sapphires, 152 emeralds, 101 almandine garnets, 6 grossular garnets, 68 amethysts, 6 citrines, one specimen of glass and one of agate. In combination with macroscopic observations and literature data, the origins of the diamonds, rubies, sapphires and emeralds were assessed. At the same time, we were able to determine which gemstones in the chalice had actually been substituted. The diamonds most probably originate from India, the rubies from Myanmar, the three sapphires from Sri Lanka and the emeralds from Colombia, whereas for the other gemstones, some detailed analyses still need to be performed. At a later date, sapphire, glass, synthetic ruby and green agate were embedded into the chalice as substitutes for lost stones. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ivkovic M.,University of Zagreb | Gracan R.,University of Zagreb | Horvat B.,Slovenian Museum of Natural History
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

A checklist of aquatic Empididae (dance flies) from Croatia (36 species in subfamily Clinocerinae and 14 species in subfamily Hemerodromiinae) is presented, including information related to the Ecoregions in which species were found and specific species traits. Clinocerinae are represented by five genera, with Wiedemannia Zetterstedt being most species rich (20 species) and Clinocerella Engel least numerous with only one species. In Hemerodromiinae there are 8 species of Chelifera Macquart and 6 species and Hemerodromia Meigen. In addition, a discussion related to the species included and excluded from the list is provided. Most species are univoltine with adults emerging in Spring and Summer, although Kowarzia barbatula Mik and Wiedemannia (Eucelidia) zetterstedti (Fallén) are present throughout the year and Wiedemannia (Chamaedipsia) aequilobata Mandaron occurrs in Winter. The Croatian species assemblage is similar to the wellstudied fauna of neighboring Slovenia (63 spp.). It is recommended that some rare species and the streams they inhabit should be considered for greater protection. © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Jersek M.,Slovenian Museum of Natural History
Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering | Year: 2015

Rubies from the Prilep dolomitic marble contain numerous diaspore inclusions, resulting from ori-ented intergrowth with corundum. In the world of gemstones, this phenomenon has been recognized as diasporescence, which has to date been researched only in the cases of corundum crystals from Mace-donia. The paper describes the importance of diasporescence for the appearance and thus the quality of rubies, in which the inclusions of diaspore are also a distinctive character for the determination of the ori-gin of this renowned gemstone. Diaspore is colourless to white and affect on intensity of red to pink col-our of ruby as a gem. Macedonian rubies are the only rubies from around the world with inclusions of di-aspore and that's why also the only rubies with optical phenomena diasporescence.

Ivkovic M.,University of Zagreb | Plant A.,National Museum Wales | Horvat B.,Slovenian Museum of Natural History
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Wiedemannia artemisa sp. nov. (Diptera: Empididae: Clinocerinae) is described from the Balkan Peninsula. Although current subgeneric concepts are considered to have doubtful validity, the new species is tentatively assigned to the subgenus Philolutra Mik. The distribution of Wiedemannia in the Balkans is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press.

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