Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing

Žalec, Slovenia

Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing

Žalec, Slovenia
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Nikoloski T.,University of Ljubljana | Udovc A.,University of Ljubljana | Pavlovic M.,Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing | Rajkovic U.,University of Maribor
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2017

Structural changes in farming present serious challenges at all spatial levels, from individual farms to the state level. The reorientation of a farm (i.e., changing from livestock production to one of horticulture or crops) represents one of these challenges. Here, a model assessing the potential for reorganizing farms to focus on horticulture is presented. The model accounts for various criteria, including: natural resources, demographic, economic, and social factors. The selection, structure, and importance of criteria and their interrelationships in the model are based on statistical data about farms, data gathered through surveys, and expert opinion groups. The model was developed using the Decision Expert method, implemented by the software DEXi, and was validated using a selection of farms. The added value of the approach is a transparent assessment of a farm's potential, which provides vital support for deciding about its reorientation. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Jakse J.,University of Ljubljana | Cerenak A.,Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing | Radisek S.,Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing | Satovic Z.,University of Zagreb | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Verticillium wilt (VW) can cause substantial yield loss in hop particularly with the outbreaks of the lethal strain of Verticillium albo-atrum. To elucidate genetic control of VW resistance in hop, an F1 mapping population derived from a cross of cultivar Wye Target, with the predicted genetic basis of resistance, and susceptible male breeding line BL2/1 was developed to assess wilting symptoms and to perform QTL mapping. The genetic linkage map, constructed with 203 markers of various types using a pseudo-testcross strategy, formed ten major linkage groups (LG) of the maternal and paternal maps, covering 552.98 and 441.1 cM, respectively. A significant QTL for VW resistance was detected at LOD 7 on a single chromosomal region on LG03 of both parental maps, accounting for 24.2-26.0 % of the phenotypic variance. QTL analysis for alpha-acid content and yield parameters was also performed on this map. QTLs for these traits were also detected and confirmed our previously detected QTLs in a different pedigree and environment. The work provides the basis for exploration of QTL flanking markers for possible use in marker-assisted selection. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Pavlovic M.,Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2011

Pest control is a critical factor in most commercial orchards and vineyards. There is a demand from growers for increased efficiency of spraying, i.e. improving efficiency of deposition, reducing drift and increasing sprayer output. However, incorrect and uncontrolled use of plant protection products can cause an economic damage due to inadequate yields and quality, wild life damage with undesired effects on non-target species and environment damage because of a direct pollution. Various modern studies in a field of plant protection products are directed to the development of methods used to determine the deposit of plant protection products in order to reduce their direct environmental impact. Evaluations of various spray equipments and application parameters in a plant protection often involve quantitative methods for assessment of spray coverage, deposit and drift. Copper and its compounds have a long year and wide-ranging employment in agriculture. In a review paper a role of cooper in a plant protection and as a spray tracer is outlined, specially related to its long year accumulation in soil and consequently its effects on environment.

Pavlovic M.,International Hop Growers Convention | Pavlovic M.,Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

Since its inception, the common agricultural policy (CAP) has been under constant internal and external reform pressures. This study belongs to a Health Check of the EU's latest CAP reform phase, which started in 2007. It analyzes the main effects of the CAP reform in 2003 (decoupled aid, as established by Council Regulation 1782/2003) on the hop industry sector. The research results demonstrate to what extent the CAP measures supporting hops have affected the production decisions of farmers in the EU's traditional hop production areas. There were three judgment criteria considered and discussed: (i) the extent to which the CAP reform has influenced the profitability of hops (production areas, capital investments); (ii) the extent to which the effects on production vary between, on the one hand, countries adopting fully decoupled support and, on the other, countries adopting partial coupling; and (iii) the extent to which producer groups contributed to stabilizing markets. The results illustrate that there was no evidence that CAP measures introduced after the reform had a significant influence on the production decisions of farmers in the traditional hop production areas from 2004 to 2008.

Mandelc S.,University of Ljubljana | Timperman I.,Ghent University | Radisek S.,Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing | Devreese B.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Verticillium wilt, caused by the soil borne fungal pathogen Verticillium albo-atrum, is a serious threat to hop (Humulus lupulus L.) production in several hop-growing regions. A proteomic approach was applied to analyse the response of root tissue in compatible and incompatible interactions between hop and V.albo-atrum at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation, using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with de novo sequencing of derivatized peptides. Approximately 1200 reproducible spots were detected on the gels, of which 102 were identified. In the compatible interaction, 252 spots showed infection-specific changes in spot abundance and an accumulation of defence-related proteins, such as chitinase, β-glucanase, thaumatin-like protein, peroxidase and germin-like protein, was observed. However, no significant infection-specific changes were detected in the incompatible interaction. The results indicate that resistance in this pathosystem may be conferred by constitutive rather than induced defence mechanisms. The identification and high abundance of two mannose/glucose-specific lectin isoforms present only in the roots of the resistant cultivar suggests function of lectins in hop resistance against V.albo-atrum. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Pavlovic V.,University of Maribor | Pavlovic M.,University of Maribor | Pavlovic M.,Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing | Cerenak A.,Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing | And 7 more authors.
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2012

The paper analyses the influence of four main weather parameters on alpha-acid contents for the main hop variety Aurora (Super Styrian Aurora) in Slovenian production for the time period 1994-2009. Through inspection of correlation coefficients, it tries to find specific times of the year when the weather conditions affect the alpha-acid content with a view to prediction in Slovenia. The most significant time periods of weather that influenced the alpha-acid contents of the Aurora variety during the growing season are identified as attributes of temperatures calculated from the interval from 25 th to 30 th week (T 2530, r = -0.88, P < 0.01), as attributes of rainfall and sunshine from the interval from 25 th to 29 th week (R 2529, r = 0.85, P < 0.01 and S 2529, r = -0.75, P < 0.01) and attributes of relative humidity from the interval from 27th to 32nd week (RH 2732, r = 0.71, P < 0.01). The attribute T 2530 represents the sum of active temperatures from June 18 to July 29 of that year. Similarly, the attribute R 2529 corresponds to the rainfall (in mm or L/m 2) that fell during the June 18 to July 22 etc.

Cregeen S.,University of Ljubljana | Radisek S.,Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing | Mandelc S.,University of Ljubljana | Turk B.,University of Ljubljana | And 3 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2015

Verticillium wilt has become a serious threat to hop production in Europe due to outbreaks of lethal wilt caused by a highly virulent strain of Verticillium albo-atrum. In order to enhance our understanding of resistance mechanisms, the fungal colonization patterns and interactions of resistant and susceptible hop cultivars infected with V. albo-atrum were analysed in time course experiments. Quantification of fungal DNA showed marked differences in spatial and temporal fungal colonization patterns in the two cultivars. Two differential display methods obtained 217 transcripts with altered expression, of which 84 showed similarity to plant proteins and 8 to fungal proteins. Gene ontology categorised them into cellular and metabolic processes, response to stimuli, biological regulation, biogenesis and localization. The expression patterns of 17 transcripts with possible implication in plant immunity were examined by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Our results showed strong expression of genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in susceptible plants and strong upregulation of genes implicated in ubiquitination and vesicle trafficking in the incompatible interaction and their downregulation in susceptible plants, suggesting the involvement of these processes in the hop resistance reaction. In the resistant cultivar, the RT-qPCR expression patterns of most genes showed their peak at 20 dpi and declined towards 30 dpi, comparable to the gene expression pattern of in planta detected fungal protein and coinciding with the highest fungal biomass in plants at 15 dpi. These expression patterns suggest that the defence response in the resistant cultivar is strong enough at 20 dpi to restrict further fungus colonization. © 2014, The Author(s).

Majer A.,University of Ljubljana | Javornik B.,University of Ljubljana | Cerenak A.,Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing | Jakse J.,University of Ljubljana
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2014

Although sources of resistance to major pathogens exist in cultivated hop germplasm, little effort has been invested to date in developing resistance-linked markers. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate resistance gene analogs (RGAs) potentially useful for marker-assisted selection towards novel resistant hop cultivars. A set of 34 putative hop RGAs was retrieved by screening publicly available hop expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for conserved sequence motifs of common resistance protein domains. Seventeen of these were identified as putative RGAs by BLAST analyses. Exon/intron boundary prediction enabled re-sequencing of 24 EST-RGAs, allowing the acquisition of approximately 5 kbp of novel intronic sequence and 8 kbp of re-sequenced exons. Fifteen EST-RGAs exhibited polymorphisms and were added to a framework linkage map of hop. In addition to providing EST-derived markers potentially useful for resistant hop cultivar development, this study provides valuable insights into the utility of targeting hop introns for marker development. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

PubMed | Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing and University of Ljubljana
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant molecular biology reporter | Year: 2015

Verticillium wilt has become a serious threat to hop production in Europe due to outbreaks of lethal wilt caused by a highly virulent strain of

Sres A.,Bayer AG | Trdan S.,University of Ljubljana | Leskosek G.,Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing | Vidrih M.,University of Ljubljana | Vucajnk F.,University of Ljubljana
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2015

The effect of spraying speed (5, 8.5 or 12 km/h) on deposition quality of fungicide on a winter wheat head, yield, grain quality, occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and deoxynivalenol (DON) content in grains was investigated in 2011 and 2012. Asymmetric double flat fan air-injector nozzles were used in the trial at a spraying pressure of 5.0 bars. A prothiconazole + tebuconazole fungicide mixture was used for spraying. An increase of spraying speed significantly lowered coverage values at the front and rear parts of a wheat head. At all three spraying speeds, the rear part of a wheat head reached a better coverage value. The effect of spraying speed was significant in 2011, when the 5 km/h spraying speed generated a significantly higher grain yield and a significantly higher thousand-grain weight in comparison with the other treatments. In both trial years, the lowest grain yield occurred on the unsprayed control. In 2011 and 2012, the latter also reached the lowest hectolitre weight and thousand-grain weight. In both trial years, the unsprayed control had a significantly higher DONcontent than the other treatments. In 2012, the DONcontent on the unsprayed control exceeded the allowed maximum level. The spraying speed did not affect the DON content in the grains. The effect of spraying speed was also noted in the FHB incidence. A significantly lower FHB incidence occurred at the 5 and 8.5 km/h spraying speeds.

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