Slovenian Environment Agency

Ljubljana, Slovenia

Slovenian Environment Agency

Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Gosar A.,University of Ljubljana | Gosar A.,Slovenian Environment Agency
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2017

The town of Idrija is located in an area with an increased seismic hazard in W Slovenia and is partly built on alluvial sediments or artificial mining and smelting deposits which can amplify seismic ground motion. There is a need to prepare a comprehensive seismic microzonation in the near future to support seismic hazard and risk assessment. To study the applicability of the microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method for this purpose, 70 free-field microtremor measurements were performed in a town area of 0.8 km2 with 50-200 m spacing between the points. The HVSR analysis has shown that it is possible to derive the sediments' resonance frequency at 48 points. With the remaining one third of the measurements, nearly flat HVSR curves were obtained, indicating a small or negligible impedance contrast with the seismological bedrock. The isofrequency (a range of 2.5-19.5 Hz) and the HVSR peak amplitude (a range of 3-6, with a few larger values) maps were prepared using the natural neighbor interpolation algorithm and compared with the geological map and the map of artificial deposits. Surprisingly no clear correlation was found between the distribution of resonance frequencies or peak amplitudes and the known extent of the supposed soft sediments or deposits. This can be explained by relatively well-compacted and rather stiff deposits and the complex geometry of sedimentary bodies. However, at several individual locations it was possible to correlate the shape and amplitude of the HVSR curve with the known geological structure and prominent site effects were established in different places. In given conditions (very limited free space and a high level of noise) it would be difficult to perform an active seismic refraction or MASW measurements to investigate the S-wave velocity profiles and the thickness of sediments in detail, which would be representative enough for microzonation purposes. The importance of the microtremor method is therefore even greater, because it enables a direct estimation of the resonance frequency without knowing the internal structure and physical properties of the shallow subsurface. The results of this study can be directly used in analyses of the possible occurrence of soil-structure resonance of individual buildings, including important cultural heritage mining and other structures protected by UNESCO. Another application of the derived free-field isofrequency map is to support soil classification according to the recent trends in building codes and to calibrate Vs profiles obtained from the microtremor array or geophysical measurements. © 2017 The Author(s).

Tasic I.,Slovenian Environment Agency | Runovc F.,University of Ljubljana
Journal of Seismology | Year: 2012

A new method is presented for the self-noise estimation of a seismometer using a single, side-by-side, reference instrument and taking into consideration the misalignment in the orientation of both seismometers. The self-noise of seismometers is extracted directly from the measurements without using any information relating to the transfer functions. This procedure can be applied if the self-noise of the reference seismometer is well known and defined, or if the self-noise of the reference seismometer is sufficiently below the self-noise of the tested instrument and can be neglected. The latter case applies to this study. An algorithm is also developed where we apply self-noise data in order to determine the orientation misalignment between two seismometers, which is then resolved in three-dimensional space. This new method provides an estimate of the self-noise and can also be used to extract some parameters of the installed seismic system in comparison with the reference seismic system, such as generator constants and seismometer orientation or to eliminate unwanted noise sources, which have their origin in the seismic station's design. The new technique was applied to the CMG-3ESPC and CMG-40T seismometers, where an STS-2 instrument served as the reference seismometer. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Gosar A.,University of Ljubljana | Gosar A.,Slovenian Environment Agency
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Two moderate magnitude (Mw = 5.6 and 5.2) earthquakes in Krn Mountains occurred in 1998 and 2004 which had maximum intensity VII-VIII and VI-VII EMS-98, respectively. Comparison of both macroseismic fields showed unexpected differences in the epicentral area which cannot be explained by site effects. Considerably, different distribution of the highest intensities can be noticed with respect to the strike of the seismogenic fault and in some localities even higher intensities have been estimated for the smaller earthquake. Although hypocentres of both earthquakes were only 2 km apart and were located on the same seismogenic Ravne fault, their focal mechanisms showed a slight difference: almost pure dextral strike-slip for the first event and a strike-slip with small reverse component on a steep fault plane for the second one. Seismotectonically the difference is explained as an active growth of the Ravne fault at its NW end. The radiation patterns of both events were studied to explain their possible impact on the observed variations in macroseismic fields and damage distribution. Radiation amplitude lobes were computed for three orthogonal directions: radial P, SV, and SH. The highest intensities of both earthquakes were systematically observed in directions of four (1998) or two (2004) large amplitude lobes in SH component (which corresponds mainly to Love waves), which have significantly different orientation for both events. On the other hand, radial P direction, which is almost purely symmetrical for the strike-slip mechanism of 1998 event, showed for the 2004 event that its small reverse component of movement has resulted in a very pronounced amplitude lobe in SW direction where two settlements are located which expressed higher intensities in the case of the 2004 event with respect to the 1998 one. Although both macroseismic fields are very complex due to influences of multiple earthquakes, retrofitting activity after 1998, site effects, and sparse distribution of settlements, unusual differences in observed intensities can be explained with different radiation patterns. © 2014 Andrej Gosar.

Strajnar B.,Slovenian Environment Agency | Zagar N.,University of Ljubljana | Berre L.,Meteo - France
Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres | Year: 2015

The impact of recently available high-resolution Mode-S Meteorological Routine Air Report (MRAR) wind and temperature observations is evaluated in the mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational (ALADIN). Data available from the airspace communicating with the Ljubljana Airport in Slovenia are assimilated by using the three-dimensional variational assimilation procedure on top of all other observations assimilated operationally. A data selection method based on aircraft type was shown to be important for the first application of the new observations in ALADIN. The evaluation of Mode-S MRAR impact included both winter and summer periods. In both seasons a clear improvement of wind and temperature forecasts was found for in the short forecast range, 1-3 h. The impact in the 24 h forecast range depends on season, with a consistent positive improvement of the boundary layer temperature forecasts obtained for the stable anticyclonic winter situations. In summer, the impact was mixed and it was found to be sensitive to the multivariate aspects of the moisture analysis. Overall presented results suggest that the new aircraft-derived observations Mode-S MRAR have a significant potential for mesoscale NWP and improved data assimilation modeling. Key Points New aircraft observations Mode-S MRAR are assimilated into mesoscale NWP model Aircraft-specific data selection and preprocessing is needed Beneficial impact on short-range forecast is demonstrated on periods and cases ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Golob S.,Slovenian Environment Agency | Kozuh M.,University of Ljubljana
Process Safety and Environmental Protection | Year: 2016

Accidents involving dangerous substances still happen and establishing an effective proactive methodology to provide safe daily operation remains a challenge. Findings about the limitations of the existing approaches with scenario presentation for the purpose of demonstrating that appropriate precautionary actions are taken to ensure a high level of protection, are the basis for the development of the new methodology, presented in this paper. The emphasis of the methodology is on effective daily operation, based on the identification of latent weaknesses; it takes into account that with dynamic processes safety changes from one moment to another. With the new approach, operators are encouraged to think continuously about the issues that have an impact on safety. Another challenge is the fact that understanding what effective daily operation means may differ from country to country and from legislation level to the operator. The guidance in this paper illustrates what effective daily operation means. The assessment of effective daily operation is also used as the risk acceptance criteria for Seveso establishments, and the presented approach is one of methodological guidance on how to implement the Article 19 of the Directive, 2012/18/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (the Seveso III Directive). © 2016 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Blazica V.,University of Ljubljana | Zagar N.,University of Ljubljana | Strajnar B.,Slovenian Environment Agency | Cedilnik J.,Slovenian Environment Agency
Tellus, Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography | Year: 2013

Kinetic energy spectra from the mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model ALADIN with horizontal resolution 4.4 km are split into divergent and rotational components which are then compared at horizontal scales below 300 km and various vertical levels. It is shown that about 50% of kinetic energy in the free troposphere in ALADIN is divergent energy. The percentage increases towards 70% near the surface and in the upper troposphere towards 100 hPa. The maximal percentage of divergent energy is found at stratospheric levels around 100 hPa and at scales below 100 km which are not represented by the global models. At all levels, the divergent energy spectra are characterised by shallower slopes than the rotational energy spectra, and the difference increases as horizontal scales become larger. A very similar vertical distribution of divergent energy is obtained by using the standard ALADIN approach for the computation of spectra based on the extension zone and by applying detrending approach commonly used in mesoscale NWP community. © 2013 V. Blažica et al.

Tasic I.,Slovenian Environment Agency | Runovc F.,University of Ljubljana
Journal of Seismology | Year: 2013

To accurately predict the performance of a seismometer, knowledge of its key parameters is required. We present a new method that requires a single reference instrument to estimate some of the important parameters of the seismometer, such as the ratio of the generator constants, the orthogonality deviation, and the rotation in space and in the horizontal plane with regards to the reference instrument. The procedure is performed in the three-dimensional spaces where the Euler rotation theorem is applied in order to define a transformation, which is then used to transform the detection of the reference seismometer as well as the detection of the instrument under test. The estimated transformation matrix is defined as an upper triangular matrix, where its elements contain the information regarding the parameters of the tested seismometer, which are then evaluated using the Euler angles. The new method has been verified on a pair consisting of two STS-2 seismometers and on a pair consisting of one CMG-3T and one STS-2 seismometer. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Muri G.,Slovenian Environment Agency
Journal of Limnology | Year: 2013

Wet-only precipitation was collected in Rateče, a remote village in the outskirts of the Julian Alps (Nort-West Slovenia) during 2003-2011, in order to characterise atmospheric deposition chemistry. The samples were collected on a daily basis and combined into weekly samples that were analysed for pH, conductivity and major anions and cations. Ammonium, nitrate and sulphate were the most abundant ions, exhibiting volume-weighted mean values (2003-2011) of 22, 17 and 17 μeq L-1, respectively. Furthermore, the trends of the major parameters in the precipitation were assessed using a simple linear regression. A significant downward trend of both nitrate and sulphate was observed, explained by evident reductions in NOx and SOx emissions in the region. The decline of nitrate and sulphate was also reflected in a significant and downward trend of conductivity. While the trend of ammonium could also be downward, the trends of other major ions were not significant. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition, representing inorganic forms of nitrogen (i.e., ammonium and nitrate), was calculated to examine potential threats that the deposition of nitrogen may cause on lake ecosystems. Nitrogen deposition in Rateče ranged from 5.5 to 9.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Although this was below the critical threshold that might cause an impact on surface waters, nitrogen deposition in the nearby Julian Alps, where sensitive mountain lakes are situated, might be higher and its impact on the ecosystem greater. In fact, several studies performed on water chemistry, sedimentary organic matter and stable isotopes in Slovenian mountain lakes have shown progressive changes in their water columns and sediments that can be attributed to nitrogen deposition.

Strajnar B.,Slovenian Environment Agency
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2012

The success of mesoscale data assimilation depends on the availability of three-dimensional observations with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper describes an example of such observations, available through Mode-S air traffic control system composed of ground radar and transponders on board the aircraft. The meteorological information is provided by interrogation of a dedicated meteorological data register, called Meteorological Routine Air Report (MRAR). MRAR provides direct measurements of temperature and wind, but is only returned by a small fraction of aircraft. The quality of Mode-S MRAR data, collected at the Ljubljana Airport, Slovenia, is assessed by its comparison with AMDAR and high-resolution radiosonde data sets, which enable high- and low-level validation, respectively. The need for temporal smoothing of raw Mode-S MRAR data is also studied. The standard deviation of differences between smoothed Mode-S MRAR and AMDAR is 0.3°5C for temperature, 0.8 m/s for wind speed and below 10 degrees for wind direction. The differences with respect to radiosondes are larger, with standard deviations of approximately 1.7°C, 3 m/s and 25 degrees for temperature, wind speed and wind direction, respectively. It is concluded that both wind and temperature observations from Mode-S MRAR are accurate and therefore potentially very useful for data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Cedilnik J.,Slovenian Environment Agency | Carrer D.,French National Center of Weather Research | Mahfouf J.-F.,Slovenian Environment Agency | Mahfouf J.-F.,French National Center of Weather Research | Roujean J.-L.,French National Center of Weather Research
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2012

This study examines the impact of daily satellite-derived albedos on short-range forecasts in a limited-area numerical weather prediction (NWP) model over Europe. Contrary to previous studies in which satellite products were used to derive monthly "climatologies,"a daily surface (snow free) albedo is analyzed by a Kalman filter. The filter combines optimally a satellite product derived from the Meteosat Second Generation geostationary satellite [and produced by the Land Surface Analyses-Satellite Application Facility of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT)], an albedo climatology, and a priori information given by "persistence."The surface albedo analyzed for a given day is used as boundary conditions of theNWPmodel to run forecasts starting the following day. Results from shortrange forecasts over a 1-yr period reveal the capacity of satellite information to reduce model biases and RMSE in screen-level temperature (during daytime and intermediate seasons). The impact on forecast scores is larger when considering the analyzed surface albedo rather than another climatologically based albedo product. From comparisons with measurements from three flux-tower stations over mostly homogeneous French forests, it is seen that the model biases in surface net radiation are significantly reduced. An impact on the whole planetary boundary layer, particularly in summer, results from the use of an observed surface albedo. An unexpected behavior produced in summer by the satellite-derived albedo on surface temperature is also explained. The forecast runs presented here, performed in dynamical adaptation mode, will be complemented later on by data assimilation experiments over typically monthly periods. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

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