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Slobodnik J.,Environmental Institute | Mrafkova L.,Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute | Carere M.,National Institute of Health | Ferrara F.,National Institute of Health | And 3 more authors.
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Following the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), a process of selecting relevant dangerous substances and developing related Pollution Reduction Programme (PRP) has started in the Slovak Republic in 2001. Based on the results of a three years investigative screening campaign, 59 chemical substances were identified as relevant dangerous substances in 2004 and included in the national PRP. This study describes two independent prioritization approaches that have been applied to revise the list of relevant dangerous substances in 2010. The first approach was using a classification system based on the occurrence monitoring data of these substances combined with self-monitoring data by industries on their emissions into wastewaters and data on production/usage of chemicals and agricultural pesticides. As an outcome, 41 of the 59 relevant substances were proposed to be retained in the updated PRP. The second approach was based on the evaluation of the Frequency of exceedance and the Extent of exceedance of environmental thresholds, referred to as predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC), for all organic compounds monitored in the river systems of the Slovak Republic from 2001 to 2010, with exclusion of WFD priority substances (PS). The results showed that 18 of 87 monitored compounds deserve closer attention in future revisions of the list, out of which 11 pollutants were new candidates to expand the list of relevant substances. The two approaches were found complementary. The methodology included a "safety net" to capture new pollutants not previously listed among the above target substances. A novel approach of prioritizing gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) non-target screening data, based on the assessment of (i) derived provisional PNEC (P-PNEC) values and (ii) estimated concentrations of tentatively identified substances, has been applied for the first time. P-PNEC values were derived for 242 substances and the prioritization effort resulted in a list of 60 new substances that might be potential candidates for inclusion into investigative monitoring schemes and, if their relevance confirmed, into the updated PRP. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Sadovsky Z.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Fasko P.,Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute | Mikulova K.,Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute | Pecho J.,Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute | Pecho J.,ASCR Institute of Physics Prague
Cold Regions Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Aiming at the assessment of accidental snow loads for the design of structures, a new approach to the analysis of exceptional snowfalls is suggested. The analysis incorporates both the attitudes of civil engineering and climatology on this natural phenomenon. Analysing the records of snow load annual maxima on the ground at measuring stations in Slovakia, the locations of occurrences of exceptional snow loads are identified. Then a climatological expertise is conducted resulting in the delimitation of three continuous lowland regions and a region of scattered mountain hollow-basins, in each of which similar climatological conditions for the occurrence of exceptional snowfalls can be expected. Within an individual region, an empirical probability distribution function based on annual snow load maxima at the observation stations is created, the upper tail of which is approximated by probability distribution functions of heavy and light tails. The accidental snow load on the ground corresponding to a mean return period of 10,000. years is assessed by the best fitting distribution function. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..


Szemesova J.,Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute | Gera M.,Comenius University
Climatic Change | Year: 2010

Results of research and practical experience confirm that stabilization of GHG concentrations will require a tremendous effort. One of the sectors identified as a significant source of methane (CH 4) emissions are solid waste disposal sites (SWDS). Landfills are the key source of CH 4 emissions in the emissions inventory of Slovakia, and the actual emission factors are estimated with a high uncertainty level. The calculation of emission uncertainty of the landfills using the more sophisticated Tier 2 Monte Carlo method is evaluated in this article. The software package that works with the probabilistic distributions and their combination was developed with this purpose in mind. The results, sensitivity analysis, and computational methodology of the CH 4 emissions from SWDS are presented in this paper. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Skvareninova J.,Technical University In Zvolen | Snopkova Z.,Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute
Folia Oecologica | Year: 2010

The paper informs about the evaluation of observed selected vegetative (bud burst beginning, the first May sprouts occurrence) and generative (the lasting male flowers and the general flowering) phenological stages of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). There were analysed data from 38 phenological stations in Slovakia within the period 1996-2008. The stations were situated in the range from 100 m to 940 m a.s.l. and divided into 3 altitudinal groups. The mean onset date of the bud burst stage was from the 21st of April till the 6th of May, the first May sprouts occurred from the 2nd till the 18th of May. Male flowers were lasting from the 12th till the 19th of May, the general flowering lasted from the 17 th till the 24th May on average. The shifts of observed vegetative phenological stages among particular altitudinal groups represented 7-9 days, and they kept their temporal succession. Generative phenological stages began with the differences among p1articular altitudinal groups approaching 2-5 days regardless the altitude itself. At lower situated stations, up to 500 m a.s.l., the vegetative phenological stages were observed shifted positively by 3.3-8.5 days, above 500 m a.s.l. these stages were delayed by 0.8-2.8 days. The generative phenological stages manifested a decreasing trend with a shift by 3.6-11.2 days sooner. The phenological phases shortens are shorter with increasing altitude.


Holko L.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Parajka J.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Parajka J.,Vienna University of Technology | Kostka Z.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2011

This article evaluates the spatial and temporal changes in streamflow flashiness in 122 mountain catchments in Slovakia and Austria. The flashiness is quantified by the Richards-Baker flashiness index (FI), which is the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow relative to total flow in a year. The analysis is based on daily streamflow data from the period 1976 to 2005. The results show that the average day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow vary from 6% to 43%, depending on the catchment. The spatial pattern of the FI reflects the variations in the main geological units and generally shows a trend of decreasing flashiness with increasing size of the catchment. Statistically significant temporal trends in flashiness are found in 7 Slovak and 22 Austrian catchments. Most of these trends are related to anthropogenic effects, while, in a few catchments, the change in annual flashiness appears to be caused by changes in precipitation seasonality. A multivariate statistical analysis of FI indicates negative correlations with catchment area, mean catchment elevation, percents of forest cover, agricultural land and Quaternary geology. Positive correlations are found between FI and Tertiary and Calcareous geologies. Extrapolating the regression models beyond the observed range of catchment attributes used in the estimation leads to significant prediction errors. In order to better interpret the FI values, a statistically significant relationship was found between the FI and the frequency of peak flows exceeding the long-term mean as well as between the FI and the 5% quantile of daily streamflow. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Prokesova R.,Matej Bel University | Medvedova A.,Matej Bel University | Taborik P.,University of Ostrava | Snopkova Z.,Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute
Landslides | Year: 2013

It is a widely accepted idea that hydrologically triggered deep-seated landslides are initiated by an increase in pore-water pressure on potential slip surface induced by rising groundwater level after prolonged period of intense rainfall although the process is not fully understood. In order to contribute to better understanding, the rainfall-groundwater relationships, hydrogeological monitoring and repeated geoelectrical imaging were carried out from March 2007 to April 2011 in large deep-seated landslide near Ľubietová (Western Carpathians) catastrophically reactivated at the end of February 1977. Based on our observations, groundwater level (GWL) response to precipitation differs considerably with respect to both overall hydrological conditions and GWL mean depth. While the rate of GWL increase up to 25 cm/day were measured after some rainfall events during wet periods, noticeably lower recharge rate (up to 1-2 cm/day) and delayed GWL response to rainfall (usually from 2 weeks to 2-4 months) were observed at the beginning of the wet season after considerable depression of GWLs due to previous effective rainfall deficit. Likewise, slow GWL fluctuations without short-term oscillations are typical for deeper GWLs. Thus, long-term (several seasons to several years) hydrological conditions affect markedly groundwater response to rainfall events in the studied landslide and can be crucial for its behaviour. Comparison of hydrological conditions characterising the analysed period with those that accompanied the landslide reactivation in 1977 allow us to assume that slightly above-average rainy season following the prolonged wet period can be far more responsible for movement acceleration (and possibly failure initiation) in deep landslides than the isolated season of extreme precipitation following a longer dry period. This is true especially for landslides in regions with significant seasonal temperature changes where potential effective precipitation (PEP), calculated as excess of precipitation (P) over potential evapotranspiration (PET), may be efficiently used for estimation of slope saturation condition. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Bosela M.,National Forest Center | Bosela M.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Petras R.,National Forest Center | Sitkova Z.,National Forest Center | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014

Silver fir is one of the most productive and ecologically valuable native European tree species, however, it has been experiencing decline which has periodically occurred over its natural range. This paper aims to investigate the recent climate-growth relationships of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and its temporal change along the course of its life. Long-term tree-ring databases, as well as records on climate, atmospheric SO2, NO3 and acid concentrations from four different regions in the Western Carpathians were used. The results provide clear evidence of significant increase of silver fir's radial increment over the entire Western Carpathian area since 1970-1980. The results indicated that the most probable factors behind the rapid recovery of tree radial increment were reductions in emissions of NO3 and SO 2, alongside a significant increase in mean June, July and April temperatures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sadovsky Z.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Koronthalyova O.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Matiasovsky P.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Mikulova K.,Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute
Journal of Building Physics | Year: 2014

A new probabilistic model for the assessment of mould growth in buildings has been elaborated within interdisciplinary - building physics/structural engineering - cooperation. Both the occurrences of favourable conditions for the growth of mould fungi and their durations are taken into account. The probabilistic approach can be characterised as time dependent based on the theory of stochastic processes. The resulting probability of occurrence of mould growth cycles having deteriorating potential suggests itself as a measure of the mould growth hazard. By the measure, the management of building performance with respect to mould growth hazard may be conceived. The calculations of an illustrative example show that the variability of the outdoor climate conditions can substantially influence the occurrences and durations of favourable conditions for mould growth. © The Author(s) 2013.


Bedka K.M.,NASA | Wang C.,Science Systems And Applications Inc. | Rogers R.,University of Alabama in Huntsville | Carey L.D.,University of Alabama in Huntsville | And 2 more authors.
Weather and Forecasting | Year: 2015

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-14 (GOES-14) Imager operated in 1-min Super Rapid Scan Operations for GOES-R (SRSOR) mode during summer and fall of 2012 to emulate the high temporal resolution sampling of the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The current GOES operational scan interval is 15-30 min, which is too coarse to capture details important for severe convective storm forecasting including 1) when indicators of a severe storm such as rapid cloud-top cooling, overshooting tops, and above-anvil cirrus plumes first appear; 2) how satellite-observed cloud tops truly evolve over time; and 3) how satellite cloud-top observations compare with radar and lightning observations at high temporal resolution. In this paper, SRSOR data, radar, and lightning observations are used to analyze five convective storms, four of which were severe, to address these uncertainties. GOES cloud-top cooling, increased lightning flash rates, and peak precipitation echo tops often preceded severe weather, signaling rapid intensification of the storm updraft. Near the time of several severe hail or damaging wind events, GOES cloud-top temperatures and radar echo tops were warming rapidly, which indicated variability in the storm updraft that could have allowed the hail and wind gusts to reach the surface. Above-anvil cirrus plumes were another prominent indicator of impending severe weather. Detailed analysis of storms throughout the 2012 SRSOR period indicates that 57% of the plume-producing storms were severe and 85% of plumes from severe storms appeared before a severe weather report with an average lead time of 18 min, 9 min earlier than what would be observed by GOES operational scanning. © 2015 American Meteorological Society.


Zelenakova M.,Technical University of Košice | Purcz P.,Technical University of Košice | Gargar I.,Technical University of Košice | Hlavata H.,Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2013

The study of hydrological risk assessment is performed with the goal to reduce impacts of droughts and floods. Drought is the most complex but least understood of all natural hazards. It is broadly defined as "severe water shortage". Floods cause huge but mainly material damages. Mentioned natural hazards cause loss of life, human and animal suffering and damage to economy and environment. The present study area is prone to extreme climate events such as drought and flood. The objective of this study was to investigate precipitation trends in the chosen climatic stations in Libya and Slovakia. Annual and monthly precipitation trends were detected by the Mann-Kendall statistical test. Significant negative trends of annual precipitation were found in four out of seventeen analyzed rainfall gauging stations in Libya. Significant positive trends of annual precipitation were found in six out of twenty analyzed rainfall gauging stations in Slovakia. November and August were observed to have decreasing trends in Libya and March in Slovakia. All other months displayed increasing trends in precipitation. The results show a trend towards drier conditions in Libya and an increase of moisture in Slovakia. © 2013 WIT Press.

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