Hurbanovo, Slovakia
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Firoz K.A.,Group Solar | Hwang J.,Group Solar | Dorotovic I.,Slovak Central Observatory | Pinter T.,Slovak Central Observatory | Kaushik S.C.,Jiwaji University
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2010

Cosmic rays registered by Neutron Monitor on the surface of the Earth are believed to originate from outer space, and sometimes also from the exotic objects of the Sun. Whilst the intensities of the cosmic rays are observed to be enhanced with sudden, sharp and short-lived increases, they are termed as ground level enhancements (GLEs). They are the occurrences in solar cosmic ray intensity variations on short-term basis, so different solar factors erupted from the Sun can be responsible for causing them. In this context, an attempt has been made to determine quantitative relationships of the GLEs having peak increase > 5% with simultaneous solar, interplanetary and geophysical factors from 1997 through 2006, thereby searching the responsible factors which seem to cause the enhancements. Results suggest that GLE peaks might be caused by solar energetic particle fluxes and solar flares. The proton fluxes which seemed to cause GLE peaks were also supported by their corresponding fluences. For most of the flares, the time integrated rising portion of the flare emission refers to the strong portion of X-ray fluxes which might be the concern to GLE peak. On an average, GLE peak associated X-ray flux (0.71 × 10-4 w/m2) is much stronger than GLE background associated X-ray flux (0.11×10-6 w/m2). It gives a general consent that the GLE peak is presumably caused by the solar flare. Coronal mass ejection alone does not seem to cause GLE. Coronal mass ejection presumably causes geomagnetic disturbances characterized by geomagnetic indices and polarities of interplanetary magnetic fields. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Dorotovic I.,Slovak Central Observatory | Erdelyi R.,University of Sheffield | Freij N.,University of Sheffield | Karlovsky V.,Hlohovec Observatory and Planetarium | Marquez I.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Aims. By focussing on the oscillations of the cross-sectional area and the total intensity of magnetic waveguides located in the lower solar atmosphere, we aim to detect and identify magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves. Methods. Capturing several high-resolution time series of magnetic waveguides and employing a wavelet analysis, in conjunction with empirical mode decomposition (EMD), makes the MHD wave analysis possible. For this paper, two sunspots and one pore (with a light bridge) were chosen as examples of MHD waveguides in the lower solar atmosphere. Results. The waveguides display a range of periods from 4 to 65 min. These structures display in-phase behaviour between the area and intensity, presenting mounting evidence for sausage modes within these waveguides. The detected periods point towards standing oscillations. Conclusions. The presence of fast and slow MHD sausage waves has been detected in three different magnetic waveguides in the solar photosphere. Furthermore, these oscillations are potentially standing harmonics supported in the waveguides that are sandwiched vertically between the temperature minimum in the lower solar atmosphere and the transition region. The relevance of standing harmonic oscillations is that their exploitation by means of solar magneto-seismology may allow insight into the sub-pixel resolution structure of photospheric MHD waveguides. © ESO, 2014.

Shahamatnia E.,Computational Intelligence Group of CTS UNINOVA | Shahamatnia E.,New University of Lisbon | Mora A.,Computational Intelligence Group of CTS UNINOVA | Mora A.,New University of Lisbon | And 6 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

PSO/Snake hybrid algorithm is a merge of particle swarm optimization (PSO), a successful population based optimization technique, and the Snake model, a specialized image processing algorithm. In the PSO/Snake hybrid algorithm each particle in the population represents only a portion of the solution and the population, as a whole, will converge to the final complete solution. In this model there is a one-to-one relation between Snake model snaxels and PSO particles with the PSO’s kinematics being modified accordingly to the snake model dynamics. This paper provides an evaluative study on the performance of the customized PSO/Snake algorithm in solving a real-world problem from astrophysics domain and comparing the results with Gradient Path Labeling (GPL) image segmentation algorithm. The GPL algorithm segments the image into regions according to its intensity from where the relevant ones can be selected based on their features. A specific type of solar features called coronal bright points have been tracked in a series of solar images using both algorithms and the solar differential rotation is calculated accordingly. The final results are compared with those already reported in the literature. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016.

Prikryl P.,Natural Resources Canada | Prikryl P.,University of New Brunswick | Iwao K.,National Institute of Technology, Kumamoto College | Muldrew D.B.,Communications Research Center Canada | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics | Year: 2016

A link between solar wind magnetic sector boundary (heliospheric current sheet) crossings by the Earth and the upper-level tropospheric vorticity was discovered in the 1970s. These results have been later confirmed but the proposed mechanisms remain controversial. Extratropical-cyclone tracks obtained from two meteorological reanalysis datasets are used in superposed epoch analysis of time series of solar wind plasma parameters and green coronal emission line intensity. The time series are keyed to times of maximum growth of explosively developing extratropical cyclones in the winter season. The new statistical evidence corroborates the previously published results (Prikryl et al., 2009). This evidence shows that explosive extratropical cyclones tend to occur after arrivals of solar wind disturbances such as high-speed solar wind streams from coronal holes when large amplitude magneto-hydrodynamic waves couple to the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. These MHD waves modulate Joule heating and/or Lorentz forcing of the high-latitude thermosphere generating medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves that propagate energy upward and downward from auroral zone through the atmosphere. At the tropospheric level, in spite of significantly reduced amplitudes, these gravity waves can provide a lift of unstable air to release the moist symmetric instability thus initiating slantwise convection and forming cloud/precipitation bands. The release of latent heat is known to provide energy for rapid development and intensification of extratropical cyclones. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Dorotovic I.,Slovak Central Observatory | Minarovjech M.,Slovak Central Observatory | Lorenc M.,Slovak Central Observatory | Rybansky M.,Slovak Central Observatory
Solar Physics | Year: 2014

The Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences has published the intensities, recalibrated with respect to a common intensity scale, of the 530.3 nm (Fe xiv) green coronal line observed at ground-based stations up to the year 2008. The name of this publication is Homogeneous Data Set (HDS). We have developed a method that allows one to successfully substitute the ground-based observations by satellite observations and, thus, continue with the publication of the HDS. For this purpose, the observations of the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite, were exploited. Among other data the EIT instrument provides almost daily 28.4 nm (Fe xv) emission-line snapshots of the corona. The Fe xiv and Fe xv data (4051 observation days) taken in the period 1996 - 2008 have been compared and good agreement was found. The method to obtain the individual data for the HDS follows from the correlation analysis described in this article. The resulting data, now under the name of Modified Homogeneous Data Set (MHDS), are identical up to 1996 to those in the HDS. The MHDS can be used further for studies of the coronal solar activity and its cycle. These data are available at © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Freij N.,University of Sheffield | Dorotovic I.,Slovak Central Observatory | Morton R.J.,Northumbria University | Ruderman M.S.,University of Sheffield | And 4 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2016

The presence of magnetoacoustic waves in magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere is well-documented. Applying the technique of solar magneto-seismology (SMS) allows us to infer the background properties of these structures. Here, we aim to identify properties of the observed magnetoacoustic waves and study the background properties of magnetic structures within the lower solar atmosphere. Using the Dutch Open Telescope and Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instruments, we captured two series of high-resolution intensity images with short cadences of two isolated magnetic pores. Combining wavelet analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), we determined characteristic periods within the cross-sectional (i.e., area) and intensity time series. Then, by applying the theory of linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we identified the mode of these oscillations within the MHD framework. Several oscillations have been detected within these two magnetic pores. Their periods range from 3 to 20 minutes. Combining wavelet analysis and EMD enables us to confidently find the phase difference between the area and intensity oscillations. From these observed features, we concluded that the detected oscillations can be classified as slow sausage MHD waves. Furthermore, we determined several key properties of these oscillations such as the radial velocity perturbation, the magnetic field perturbation, and the vertical wavenumber using SMS. The estimated range of the related wavenumbers reveals that these oscillations are trapped within these magnetic structures. Our results suggest that the detected oscillations are standing harmonics, and this allows us to estimate the expansion factor of the waveguides by employing SMS. The calculated expansion factor ranges from 4 to 12. © 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Lukac B.,Slovak Central Observatory | Rybansky M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences
Solar Physics | Year: 2010

The original coronal index of the solar activity (CI) has been constructed on the basis of ground-based measurements of the intensities of the coronal line of 530. 3 nm (Rybanský in Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechoslov., 28, 367, 1975; Rybanský et al. in J. Geophys. Res., 110, A08106, 2005). In this paper, CI is compared with the EUV measurements on the CELIAS/SEM equipment based on the same idea as the original idea of the coronal index. The correlation is very good for the period 1996 - 2005 (r=0. 94 for daily values). The principal result of this paper is the introduction of the modified coronal index (MCI) which in all uses and contexts can replace the existing CI index. Daily MCI values extend over a time period of six solar activity cycles. Future MCI measurements will be derived from more reliable measurements made by space-based observatories that are not influenced by the weather. MCI measurements are and will continue to be archived at the web site of the Slovak Central Observatory in Hurbanovo ( © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Pinter T.,Slovak Central Observatory | Rybansky M.,Slovak Central Observatory | Dorotovic I.,Slovak Central Observatory
Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union | Year: 2013

The global magnetic field of the Sun is the determining parameter of spreading the solar wind in the interplanetary space. The global field changes the polarity synchronically with the cycle of solar activity. The interesting indicator of the polarity change are the occurence so-called polar belts of the prominences. The article shows the performance of these belts on observational work from 1975 to 2009. A coordinated effort is suggested for the compilation of data from different observers following the method described by Ru?sin et al., 1988. © 2013 International Astronomical Union.

Lorenc M.,Slovak Central Observatory | Rybansky M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Dorotovic I.,Slovak Central Observatory
Solar Physics | Year: 2012

We have studied the rotation of the solar corona using the images taken at a 9. 4 nm wavelength by the AIA 094 instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. Our analysis implies that the solar corona rotates differentially. It appears that ω, the angular rotation velocity of the solar corona, does not only depend on heliographic latitude but is also a function of time, while the nature of the latter dependence remains unclear. Besides measurement errors, deviations Δω from the mean rotational speed are also caused by proper motion of the observed point source (the tracer) with respect to its surroundings. The spread in ω values at a particular heliographic latitude is a real effect, not caused by measurement errors. Most of the observations carry relative error less than 1 % in ω. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Shahamatnia E.,Computational Intelligence Group of CTS UNINOVA | Shahamatnia E.,New University of Lisbon | Dorotovic I.,Computational Intelligence Group of CTS UNINOVA | Dorotovic I.,Slovak Central Observatory | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate | Year: 2016

Developing specialized software tools is essential to support studies of solar activity evolution. With new space missions such as Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), solar images are being produced in unprecedented volumes. To capitalize on that huge data availability, the scientific community needs a new generation of software tools for automatic and efficient data processing. In this paper a prototype of a modular framework for solar feature detection, characterization, and tracking is presented. To develop an efficient system capable of automatic solar feature tracking and measuring, a hybrid approach combining specialized image processing, evolutionary optimization, and soft computing algorithms is being followed. The specialized hybrid algorithm for tracking solar features allows automatic feature tracking while gathering characterization details about the tracked features. The hybrid algorithm takes advantages of the snake model, a specialized image processing algorithm widely used in applications such as boundary delineation, image segmentation, and object tracking. Further, it exploits the flexibility and efficiency of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a stochastic population based optimization algorithm. PSO has been used successfully in a wide range of applications including combinatorial optimization, control, clustering, robotics, scheduling, and image processing and video analysis applications. The proposed tool, denoted PSO-Snake model, was already successfully tested in other works for tracking sunspots and coronal bright points. In this work, we discuss the application of the PSO-Snake algorithm for calculating the sidereal rotational angular velocity of the solar corona. To validate the results we compare them with published manual results performed by an expert. © E. Shahamatnia et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2016.

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