McGibbon R.T.,Stanford University |
Beauchamp K.A.,Sloan Kettering InstituteNY |
Harrigan M.P.,Stanford University |
Klein C.,Vanderbilt University |
And 6 more authors.
As molecular dynamics (MD) simulations continue to evolve into powerful computational tools for studying complex biomolecular systems, the necessity of flexible and easy-to-use software tools for the analysis of these simulations is growing. We have developed MDTraj, a modern, lightweight, and fast software package for analyzing MD simulations. MDTraj reads and writes trajectory data in a wide variety of commonly used formats. It provides a large number of trajectory analysis capabilities including minimal root-mean-square-deviation calculations, secondary structure assignment, and the extraction of common order parameters. The package has a strong focus on interoperability with the wider scientific Python ecosystem, bridging the gap between MD data and the rapidly growing collection of industry-standard statistical analysis and visualization tools in Python. MDTraj is a powerful and user-friendly software package that simplifies the analysis of MD data and connects these datasets with the modern interactive data science software ecosystem in Python. © 2015 Biophysical Society. Source
Schulman V.K.,Cornell University |
Schulman V.K.,Sloan Kettering InstituteNY |
Folker E.S.,Sloan Kettering InstituteNY |
Rosen J.N.,Sloan Kettering InstituteNY |
And 2 more authors.
Highlighting the importance of proper intracellular organization, many muscle diseases are characterized by mispositioned myonuclei. Proper positioning of myonuclei is dependent upon the microtubule motor proteins, Kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic Dynein, and there are at least two distinct mechanisms by which Kinesin and Dynein move myonuclei. The motors exert forces both directly on the nuclear surface and from the cell cortex via microtubules. How these activities are spatially segregated yet coordinated to position myonuclei is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we identified that Sunday Driver (Syd), a homolog of mammalian JNK-interacting protein 3 (JIP3), specifically regulates Kinesin- and Dynein-dependent cortical pulling of myonuclei without affecting motor activity near the nucleus. Specifically, Syd mediates Kinesin-dependent localization of Dynein to the muscle ends, where cortically anchored Dynein then pulls microtubules and the attached myonuclei into place. Proper localization of Dynein also requires activation of the JNK signaling cascade. Furthermore, Syd functions downstream of JNK signaling because without Syd, JNK signaling is insufficient to promote Kinesin-dependent localization of Dynein to the muscle ends. The significance of Syd-dependent myonuclear positioning is illustrated by muscle-specific depletion of Syd, which impairs muscle function. Moreover, both myonuclear spacing and locomotive defects in syd mutants can be rescued by expression of mammalian JIP3 in Drosophila muscle tissue, indicating an evolutionarily conserved role for JIP3 in myonuclear movement and highlighting the utility of Drosophila as a model for studying mammalian development. Collectively, we implicate Syd/JIP3 as a novel regulator of myogenesis that is required for proper intracellular organization and tissue function. © 2014 Schulman et al. Source