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Doetinchem, Netherlands

Haagsma J.A.,Erasmus Medical Center | Scholten A.C.,Erasmus Medical Center | Andriessen T.M.J.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Vos P.E.,Slingeland Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurotrauma | Year: 2015

Abstract The impact of disability following traumatic brain injury (TBI), assessed by functional measurement scales for TBI or by health-related quality of life (HRQoL), may vary because of a number of factors, including presence of depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and impact of depression and PTSD on functional outcome and HRQoL six and 12 months following mild TBI. We selected a sample of 1919 TBI patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) followed by either hospital admission or discharge to the home environment. The sample received postal questionnaires six and 12 months after treatment at the ED. The questionnaires included items regarding socio-demographics, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Perceived Quality of Life Scale (PQoL), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. A total of 797 (42%) TBI patients completed the six-month follow-up survey. Depression and PTSD prevalence rates at both the six- and 12-month follow-up were 7% and 9%, respectively. Living alone was an independent predictor of depression and/or PTSD at six- and 12-month follow-up. Depression and PTSD were associated with a significantly decreased functional outcome (measured with Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended) and HRQoL (measured using the SF-36 and the PQoL). We conclude that depression and/or PTSD are relatively common in our sample of TBI patients and associated with a considerable decrease in functional outcome and HRQoL. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Van Der Valk M.E.,University Utrecht | Mangen M.-J.J.,University Utrecht | Leenders M.,University Utrecht | Dijkstra G.,University of Groningen | And 17 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2014

Objective The introduction of anti tumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) therapy might impact healthcare expenditures, but there are limited data regarding the costs of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) following the introduction of these drugs. We aimed to assess the healthcare costs and productivity losses in a large cohort of IBD patients. Design Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients from seven university hospitals and seven general hospitals were invited to fill-out a web-based questionnaire. Cost items were derived from a 3 month follow-up questionnaire and categorised in outpatient clinic, diagnostics, medication, surgery and hospitalisation. Productivity losses included sick leave of paid and unpaid work. Costs were expressed as mean 3-month costs per patients with a 95% CI obtained using non-parametric bootstrapping. Results A total of 1315 CD patients and 937 UC patients were included. Healthcare costs were almost three times higher in CD as compared with UC, €1625(95% CI €1476 to €1775) versus €595 (95% CI €505 to €685), respectively (p<0.01). Anti-TNFα use was the main costs driver, accounting for 64% and 31% of the total cost in CD and UC. Hospitalisation and surgery together accounted for 19% and <1% of the healthcare costs in CD and 23% and 1% in UC, respectively. Productivity losses accounted for 16% and 39% of the total costs in CD and UC. Conclusions We showed that healthcare costs are mainly driven by medication costs, most importantly by anti-TNFα therapy. Hospitalisation and surgery accounted only for a minor part of the healthcare costs.

Scholten A.C.,Erasmus MC | Haagsma J.A.,Erasmus MC | Andriessen T.M.J.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Vos P.E.,Slingeland Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Injury | Year: 2015

Background The Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) is the established functional outcome scale to assess disability following traumatic brain injury (TBI), however does not capture the patient's subjective perspective. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) does capture the individual's perception of disability after TBI, and has therefore been recognized as an important outcome in TBI. In contrast to GOSE, HRQL enables comparison of health outcome across various disease states and with healthy individuals. We aimed to assess functional outcome, HRQL, recovery, and predictors of 6 and 12-month outcome in a comprehensive sample of patients with mild, moderate or severe TBI, and to examine the relationship between functional impairment (GOSE) and HRQL. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among a sample of 2066 adult TBI patients who attended the emergency department (ED). GOSE was determined through questionnaires or structured interviews. Questionnaires 6 and 12 months after ED treatment included socio-demographic information and HRQL measured with Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36; reflecting physical, mental and social functioning) and Perceived Quality of Life Scale (PQoL; measuring degree of satisfaction with functioning). Results 996 TBI survivors with mild, moderate or severe TBI completed the 6-month questionnaire. Functional outcome and HRQL after moderate or severe TBI was significantly lower than after mild TBI. Patients with moderate TBI showed greatest improvement. After one year, the mild TBI group reached outcomes comparable to population norms. TBI of all severities highly affected SF-36 domains physical and social functioning, and physical and emotional role functioning. GOSE scores were highly related to all SF-36 domains and PQoL scores. Female gender, older age, co-morbidity and high ISS were strongest independent predictors of decreased HRQL at 6 and 12 months after TBI. Conclusions HRQL and recovery patterns differ for mild, moderate and severe TBI. This study indicates that GOSE, although clinically relevant, fails to capture the subjective perspective of TBI patients, which endorses the use of HRQL as valuable addition to established instruments in assessing disability following TBI. Influence of TBI severity on recovery, together with female gender, older age, co-morbidity and high ISS should be considered in long-term follow-up and intervention programs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

van Erp W.S.,Radboud University Nijmegen | van Erp W.S.,University of Liege | Lavrijsen J.C.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | van de Laar F.A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2014

One of the worst outcomes of acquired brain injury is the vegetative state, recently renamed 'unresponsive wakefulness syndrome' (VS/UWS). A patient in VS/UWS shows reflexive behaviour such as spontaneous eye opening and breathing, but no signs of awareness of the self or the environment. We performed a systematic review of VS/UWS prevalence studies and assessed their reliability. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched in April 2013 for cross-sectional point or period prevalence studies explicitly stating the prevalence of VS/UWS due to acute causes within the general population. We additionally checked bibliographies and consulted experts in the field to obtain 'grey data' like government reports. Relevant publications underwent quality assessment and data-extraction. We retrieved 1032 papers out of which 14 met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence figures varied from 0.2 to 6.1 VS/UWS patients per 100 000 members of the population. However, the publications' methodological quality differed substantially, in particular with regards to inclusion criteria and diagnosis verification. The reliability of VS/UWS prevalence figures is poor. Methodological flaws in available prevalence studies, the fact that 5/14 of the studies predate the identification of the minimally conscious state (MCS) as a distinct entity in 2002, and insufficient verification of included cases may lead to both overestimation and underestimation of the actual number of patients in VS/UWS. © 2014 EAN.

Menting T.P.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Sterenborg T.B.,Radboud University Nijmegen | De Waal Y.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Donders R.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery | Year: 2015

Background Despite the increasing use of pre- and post-hydration protocols and low osmolar instead of high osmolar iodine containing contrast media, the incidence of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is still significant. There is evidence that contrast media cause ischemia reperfusion injury of the renal medulla. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive, safe, and low cost method to reduce ischemia reperfusion injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether RIPC, as an adjunct to standard preventive measures, reduces contrast induced acute kidney injury in patients at risk of CIN. Methods The RIPCIN study is a multicenter, single blinded, randomized controlled trial in which 76 patients at risk of CIN received standard hydration combined with RIPC or hydration with sham preconditioning. RIPC was applied by four cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion of the forearm. The primary outcome measure was the change in serum creatinine from baseline to 48 to 72 hours after contrast administration. Results With regard to the primary endpoint, no significant effect of RIPC was found. CIN occurred in four patients (2 sham and 2 RIPC). A pre-defined subgroup analysis of patients with a Mehran risk score ≥11, showed a significantly reduced change in serum creatinine from baseline to 48 to 72 hours in patients allocated to the RIPC group (Δ creatinine -3.3 ± 9.8 μmol/L) compared with the sham group (Δ creatinine +17.8 ± 20.1 μmol/L). Conclusion RIPC, as an adjunct to standard preventive measures, does not improve serum creatinine levels after contrast administration in patients at risk of CIN according to the Dutch guideline. However, the present data indicate that RIPC might have beneficial effects in patients at a high or very high risk of CIN (Mehran score ≥ 11). The RIPCIN study is registered at: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN76496973. © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

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