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Westenhoefer J.,Hamburg University of Applied Sciences | Engel D.,Hamburg University of Applied Sciences | Holst C.,Institute of Preventive Medicine | Lorenz J.,Hamburg University of Applied Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Eating Behaviors | Year: 2013

Objectives: Examine the association between components of restrained eating, cognitive performance and weight loss maintenance. Methods: 106 women, all members of a commercial slimming organisation for at least 6. months (mean ± SD: 15.7 ± 12.4 months), were studied who, having lost 10.1 ± 9.7 kg of their initial weight, were hoping to sustain their weight loss during the 6. month study. Dietary restraint subcomponents flexible and rigid restraint, as well as preoccupying cognitions with food, body-shape and diet were assessed using questionnaires. Attentional bias to food and shape-related stimuli was measured using a modified Stroop test. Working memory performance was assessed using the N-back test. These factors, and participant weight, were measured twice at 6. month intervals. Results: Rigid restraint was associated with attentional bias to food and shape-related stimuli (r = 0.43, p < 0.001 resp r = 0.49, p < 0.001) whereas flexible restraint correlated with impaired working memory (r = - 0.25, p < 0.05). In a multiple regression analyses, flexible restraint was associated with more weight lost and better weight loss maintenance, while rigid restraint was associated with less weight loss. Conclusions: Rigid restraint correlates with a range of preoccupying cognitions and attentional bias to food and shape-related stimuli. Flexible restraint, despite the impaired working memory performance, predicts better long-term weight loss. Explicitly encouraging flexible restraint may be important in preventing and treating obesity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Whybrow S.,Rowett Research Institute | Whybrow S.,University of Surrey | Ritz P.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Horgan G.W.,Rowett Research Institute | James Stubbs R.,Slimming World
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective estimates of activity patterns and energy expenditure (EE) are important for the measurement of energy balance. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) can estimate EE from the thirty-five postures and activities it can identify and record. The present study evaluated the IDEEA system's estimation of EE using whole-body indirect calorimetry over 24 h, and in free-living subjects using doubly-labelled water (DLW) over 14 d. EE was calculated from the IDEEA data using calibration values for RMR and EE while sitting and standing, both as estimated by the IDEEA system (IDEEAest) and measured by indirect calorimetry (IDEEAmeas). Subjects were seven females and seven males, mean age 38·1 and 39·7 years, mean BMI 25·2 and 26·2 kg/m2, respectively. The IDEEAest method produced a similar estimate of EE to the calorimeter (10·8 and 10·8 MJ, NS), while the IDEEAmeas method underestimated EE (9·9 MJ, P < 0·001). After removing data from static cycling, which the IDEEA was unable to identify as an activity, both the IDEEAest and IDEEAmeas methods overestimated EE compared to the calorimeter (9·9 MJ, P < 0·001; 9·1 MJ, P < 0·05 and 8·6 MJ, respectively). Similarly, the IDEEA system overestimated EE compared to DLW over 14 d; 12·7 MJ/d (P < 0·01), 11·5 MJ/d (P < 0·01) and 9·5 MJ/d for the IDEEAest, IDEEAmeas and DLW, respectively. The IDEEA system overestimated EE both in the controlled laboratory and free-living environments. Using measured EE values for RMR, sitting and standing reduced, but did not eliminate, the error in estimated EE. © 2012 The Authors. Source


Stubbs J.,Slimming World | Brogelli D.,Slimming World | Pallister C.,Slimming World | Avery A.,Slimming World | And 2 more authors.
Open Obesity Journal | Year: 2012

This survey examined self-reported behaviour changes associated with weight loss and maintenance in a group of 292 members of a commercial weight management organisation (CWMO). Mean (SD) joining weight was 89.0 (20.0) kg, duration of membership was 29.1 (16.2) months and time taken to reach their current weight was 16.3 (13.5) months. Mean (SD) weight change was -15.6 (11.4) kg and BMI change was -5.7 (4.0) kg/m2, (both p<0.001), which had been maintained for 11.7 (12.8) months. Primary factors reported by participants as important in achieving their weight loss included not going hungry by satisfying appetite with low energy density food eaten ad libitum, following a flexible diet, peer-group support and tools to cope with small lapses. Several reported eating/activity behaviours significantly correlated with weight loss maintenance (WLM). However in regression analysis, while most individual changes in eating behaviour and activity behaviour were significant predictors of weight change in this group, no variables explained more than a few percent of the variance, after adjusting for age, gender, height and starting weight. A range of eating and activity behaviours was associated with weight loss maintenance. It is important to offer consumers flexible solutions they can adapt to their individual lifestyle needs. © Stubbs et al.; Licensee Bentham Open. Source


Stubbs R.J.,Slimming World | Pallister C.,Slimming World | Whybrow S.,University of Surrey | Avery A.,Slimming World | Lavin J.,Slimming World
Obesity Facts | Year: 2011

Objective: This project audited rate and extent of weight loss in a primary care/commercial weight management organisation partnership scheme. Methods: 34,271 patients were referred to Slimming World for 12 weekly sessions. Data were analysed using individual weekly weight records. Results: Average (SD) BMI change was -1.5 kg/m 2 (1.3), weight change -4.0 kg (3.7), percent weight change -4.0% (3.6), rate of weight change -0.3 kg/week, and number of sessions attended 8.9 (3.6) of 12. For patients attending at least 10 of 12 sessions (n = 19,907 or 58.1%), average (SD) BMI change was -2.0 kg/m 2 (1.3), weight change -5.5 kg (3.8), percent weight change -5.5% (3.5), rate of weight change -0.4 kg/week, and average number of sessions attended was 11.5 (0.7) (p < 0.001, compared to all patients). Weight loss was greater in men (n = 3,651) than in women (n = 30,620) (p < 0.001). 35.8% of all patients enrolled and 54.7% in patients attending 10 or more sessions achieved at least 5% weight loss. Weight gain was prevented in 92.1% of all patients referred. Attendance explained 29.6% and percent weight lost in week 1 explained 18.4% of the variance in weight loss. Conclusions: Referral to a commercial organisation is a practical option for National Health Service (NHS) weight management strategies, which achieves clinically safe and effective weight loss. © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Stubbs J.,Slimming World | Whybrow S.,University of Surrey | Lavin J.,Slimming World
Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2010

A healthy rate of weight loss of 0.5-1.0 kg/week can be achieved by invoking an energy deficit of 450-900 kcal/day. This assumes an energy cost of weight loss of 6300 kcal/kg. This value will increase with percent body fat. Diet and physical activity strategies should be combined to lose weight. However, dietary approaches to weight management appear most efficacious for initial weight loss. Energy density should be the cornerstone of dietary weight reduction strategies because it helps people develop and optimise healthy eating habits that are sustainable in the longer-term. However, healthy diets for weight management should be seen as a package including reduced fat, energy density, sugars and salt, increased fibre, protein and water content of foods. Healthy diets also have to be palatable, to maintain interest in healthy eating. Monotherapies for weight loss are subject to the laws of diminishing returns. Practical approaches to weight management should be focused on a package of weight loss and maintenance strategies, including relapse prevention. It is important to provide consumers with a flexible approach to behaviour change and lifestyle solutions that they can match to their individual lifestyle needs. Evidence from studies of successful weight-loss maintainers shows that people can work this out for themselves if they can access the right tools, continuing care, guidance and social support to achieve sustainable lifestyle change. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Nutrition Foundation. Source

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