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Taoyuan City, Taiwan

Hanly P.J.,Sleep Center | Ahmed S.B.,University of Calgary
Chest | Year: 2014

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing, which presents challenges for both patients and health-care budgets. Although this phenomenon has been attributed to the growth in diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, sleep apnea and nocturnal hypoxemia may also contribute to the pathogenesis of CKD and its progression to kidney failure. Two pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for CKD are glomerular hyperfi ltration and chronic intrarenal hypoxia, resulting in tubulointerstitial injury, the fi nal common pathway to endstage kidney disease (ESKD). Multiple descriptive studies have demonstrated an association between CKD and sleep apnea. Although sleep apnea is common in patients with CKD and associated with signifi cant nocturnal hypoxemia, it is often relatively free of sleep-related symptoms, making it diffi cult to detect without objective nocturnal monitoring. Nevertheless, sleep apnea and nocturnal hypoxemia have been associated with loss of kidney function and kidney injury, suggesting that they contribute to the pathogenesis of continued deterioration in kidney function. There are several pathways through which sleep apnea may achieve this, including a direct eff ect of intrarenal hypoxia and activation of the systemic and renal reninangiotensin system. Further research is required to better understand these relationships and determine whether specifi c interventions in patients with sleep apnea have an impact on clinical outcomes, such as reducing the prevalence of CKD and delaying its progression to ESKD. © 2014 AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CHEST PHYSICIANS. Source

To explore the profile of patients who visit a sleep center with symptoms that fulfill the four essential criteria for restless legs syndrome (RLS). A prospective study. Outpatients from one sleep disorders clinic in Taiwan. 1,200 consecutive patients visit sleep disorders clinic with any sleep complaints. After completing a history and physical examination, all participants answered the RLS questionnaire. Subjects who fulfilled the four essential criteria for RLS were referred to a special clinic. A work-up including blood tests, polysomnography, and specialized neurological tests etc. was performed to make the final diagnosis. A total of 1,185 participants were enrolled, and, of these, 131(11.1%) fulfilled the four essential criteria for RLS, and 121 completed the supplemental work-up. Their mean age was 47.6±13.3 and 52.9% were male. Insomnia and snoring were the most common chief complaints. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and other diseases were found in 103 patients. Only 18 (14.9%) patients had no comorbid condition and were diagnosed with primary RLS. Symptoms of RLS are common in patients with sleep complaints. Even in a sleep clinic, using a questionnaire approach for identification of RLS has a low positive predictive value. Clinicians should pay attention to the limitations of the 4-item questionnaire in diagnosis of RLS and also the importance of a careful differential diagnosis to identify possible secondary causes of RLS. Source

Leufkens T.R.M.,HIGH-TECH | Ramaekers J.G.,Maastricht University | De Weerd A.W.,Sleep Center | Riedel W.J.,Maastricht University | Vermeeren A.,Maastricht University
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Rationale: Residual effects of hypnotics on driving performance have been mainly determined in studies using a standardized driving test with healthy good sleepers. Responses to effects may differ, however, between insomniacs and healthy volunteers due to the underlying sleep disorder. In addition, a majority of insomniacs uses hypnotics chronically resulting in the development of tolerance to impairing effects. Impaired driving performance in healthy volunteers may then be an overestimation of the actual effects in insomniacs. Objectives: The present study aims to compare the residual effects of zopiclone 7.5 mg on on-the-road driving performance of 16 middle-aged insomniacs chronically using hypnotics (chronic users), 16 middle-aged insomniacs not or infrequently using hypnotics (infrequent users), and 16 healthy, age matched, good sleepers (controls). Methods: The study was conducted according to a 3∈×∈2 double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design, with three groups and two treatment conditions. Treatments were single oral doses of zopiclone 7.5 mg and placebo administered at bedtime (2330 hours). Between 10 and 11 h after administration subjects performed a standardized highway driving test. Results: Zopiclone 7.5 mg significantly impaired on-the-road driving performance in both insomnia groups and healthy controls. The magnitude of impairment was significantly less in the chronic users group as compared with the controls. Conclusions: The smaller magnitude of effects suggests that investigating residual effects of hypnotics in healthy volunteers may yield a minor overestimation of the actual effects in insomnia patients. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Leufkens T.R.M.,HIGH-TECH | Ramaekers J.G.,Maastricht University | De Weerd A.W.,Sleep Center | Riedel W.J.,Maastricht University | Vermeeren A.,Maastricht University
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Rationale: Many older adults report sleep problems and use of hypnotics. Several studies have shown that hypnotics can have acute adverse effects on driving the next morning. It is unclear however whether driving of chronic hypnotic users is impaired. Therapeutic effects on insomnia and development of tolerance may reduce the residual effects on driving. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare actual driving performance and driving-related skills of chronic hypnotic users to good sleepers. To determine whether insomnia itself affects driving performance, driving and driving-related skills were compared between insomnia patients who do not or infrequently use hypnotics and good sleepers. Methods: Twenty-two frequent users of hypnotics (using hypnotics ≥4 nights per week for more than 3 months), 20 infrequent users (using hypnotics ≤3 nights per week), and 21 healthy, age-matched controls participated in this study. On the night before testing, all subjects were hospitalized for an 8-h sleep recorded by polysomnography. Frequent hypnotic users used their regular medication at bedtime (2330 hours), while infrequent users and controls received no medication. Cognitive performance (word learning, digit span, tracking, divided attention, vigilance, and inhibitory control) was assessed 8.5 h and driving performance between 10 and 11 h after bedtime and dosing. Results: Polysomnographic recordings did not significantly differ between the groups, but the insomnia patients, treated or untreated, still reported subjective sleep complaints. Results show no differences in driving performance and driving-related skills between both groups of insomnia patients and controls. Conclusions: Driving performance in chronic users of hypnotics and untreated insomnia patients is not impaired. For chronic users, this may be due to prescription of relatively safe drugs and low doses. For untreated insomniacs, this corroborates previous findings showing an absence of neuropsychological deficits in this group of patients. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Rains J.C.,Center for Sleep Evaluation | Poceta J.S.,Sleep Center
Neurologic Clinics | Year: 2012

Irrespective of diagnosis, chronic daily, morning, or "awakening" headache patterns are soft signs of a sleep disorder. Sleep apnea headache may emerge de novo or may present as an exacerbation of cluster, migraine, tension-type, or other headache. Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in chronic migraine and tension-type headache, and increases risk for depression and anxiety. Sleep disturbance (eg, sleep loss, oversleeping, schedule shift) is an acute headache trigger for migraine and tension-type headache. Snoring and sleep disturbance are independent risk factors for progression from episodic to chronic headache. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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