Wodzisław Śląski, Poland
Wodzisław Śląski, Poland

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Centrum Leczenia Oparzen and Slaski University Medyczny | Date: 2013-04-03

The invention presented in this application relates to a substrate with a thermosensitive polymer layer of changeable affinity for water (LCST) within 0-80C and the method by which it is made through the immobilization of a thermosensitive polymer from a group of homo- and copolymers of 2-substituted-2-oxazoline onto a modified surface consisting of a non-organic base substrate, preferably glass or silicon. The thermosensitive polymer is immobilized onto the substrate surface by the grafting of 2-substituted-2-oxazoline polymer chains and making the layer covalently bonded with the base substrate through the functional group of the silyl linker as indicated in formula 2 or 3. The polymer immobilization onto the base substrate is performed through grafting that initiates a cationic polymerization from the substrate or through termination of the polymerization by the functional groups on the substrate until a polymer brush conformation with a polymer grafting density of 0.1-1.8 chain/nm^(2) is formed. The substrate with the thermosensitive layer made of a polymer from a group of homo- and copolymers of 2-substituted-2-oxazoline is used for cell culture, particularly skin cell culture.

Negative attitudes in health such as cigarette smoking and imbalanced diet play important role in pathogenesis of various diseases. Cigarette smoking constitutes one of the main sources of exposure to cancerogenic and procancerogenic xenobiotics among adults as well as among young people. Many studies have proven that cigarettes smokers more frequently follow less varied diet in comparison to non-smokers. Despite increasing knowledge of Poles regarding harmful effects of cigarettes smoking and numerous antinicotine campaigns, still high number of women and men smoke and the smoking percentage among young people remains high and has not decreased in the recent years. The ongoing research shows that free radicals -the man cause of exposure to oxidative stress- play the seminal role in pathogenesis of civilisation diseases and physiological cell aging processes. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species present in cigarette smoke due to induced toxic compounds formation, are closely connected with observed increased risk of cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and arteriosclerosis incidents. Malondialdehyde is one of the most studied product of lipid peroxidation and biomarker of oxidative stress. However, 3-nitrotyrosine is one of the most promising biomarkers regarding changes caused by oxidative stress in living organisms. The presence of 3-nitrotyrosine was observed in many diseases such as coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes. The aim of the study was the evaluation of free radical processes increase related to tobacco smoke exposure and chosen diet habits by determination of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma samples collected from the group of medicine students. In our investigation we used an author's questionnaire which served to estimate the exposure to tobacco smoke among medicine students. It took also into account the knowledge of the exposure to other xenobiotics and unhealthy habits/behaviours. The investigated group included 150 students of 1-st and 2-nd year of study at Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry Division in Zabrze, Silesian Medical University. 120 students provided blood samples for further analysis. In the study group 52 students were active smokers and the control group consisted of 68 non-smokers. 3-nitrotyrosine was determined with the use of ELISA technique. The mean concentration of 3-nitrotyrosine was higher in the group of smoking students in comparison to the control group. Diet habits also influenced the concentration of 3-nitrotyrosine. Eating food products of possibly high acrylamide level and drinking alcohol led in particular to observed increased concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine in both students groups. The correlation between the food habits and the severity of nitrosative stress was also found.

The way smoker smokes his cigarette (smoking topography) depends on many factors, like his age and sex, or the type of cigarettes he smokes. Smoking topography includes a puff volume, a number of puffs taken during smoking one cigarette, a frequency and time of puffing, and the intervals between puffs. The aim of the study was to verify if the level of nicotine dependence affects smoking topography. We investigated 59 regular smokers (33 females and 26 males), in the age of 34 +/- 12. The level of nicotine dependence was determined with Fagerström Test (FTND) and Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Smoking topography was measured five times during a single day. Smokers smoked their regular brands of cigarettes. We showed, that the puff volume and intervals between puff strongly correlated with the level of nicotine dependence. When using NDSS test, we found that the total puff volume and the number of puffs taken from a single cigarette correlated with a drive to smoke. Negative correlation was found between the total puff volume and the number of puffs taken from a single cigarette and a tolerance. Continuity of smoking affected a number of puffs and the intervals between puffs. Nicotine dependence affects smoking topography.

Harazin B.,Slaski University Medyczny
Medycyna Pracy | Year: 2010

Background: Toys play an important role in the development of the sight and hearing concentration in children. They also support the development of manipulation, gently influence a child and excite its emotional activities. A lot of toys emit various sounds. The aim of the study was to assess sound levels produced by sound-emitting toys used by young children. Material and Methods: Acoustical parameters of noise were evaluated for 16 sound-emitting plastic toys in laboratory conditions. The noise level was recorded at four different distances, 10, 20, 25 and 30 cm, from the toy. Measurements of A-weighted sound pressure levels and noise levels in octave band in the frequency range from 31.5 Hz to 16 kHz were performed at each distance. Results: Taking into consideration the highest equivalent A-weighted sound levels produced by tested toys, they can be divided into four groups: below 70 dB (6 toys), from 70 to 74 dB (4 toys), from 75 to 84 dB (3 toys) and from 85 to 94 dB (3 toys). The majority of toys (81%) emitted dominant sound levels in octave band at the frequency range from 2 kHz to 4 kHz. Conclusions: Sound-emitting toys produce the highest acoustic energy at the frequency range of the highest susceptibility of the auditory system. Noise levels produced by some toys can be dangerous to children's hearing. Med Pr 2010;61(6):649-654. © Instytut Medycyny Pracy im. prof. J. Nofera w Łodzi.

In recent years, the increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS - Multiple Sclerosis) is observed. and the direct cause of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis is myelin nerves damage. It can be concluded that the environmental factor is at least partly responsible for the occurrence of this disease. For the development of this disease are responsible, in addition to genetic factors, compounds present in many parts of the environment. Many of these compounds may adversely affect the redox equilibrium of the body, exacerbating radicalgenesis and decreasing antioxidant defenses. Multiple sclerosis is usually diagnosed in early adulthood, during most daily activities. Effects of SM on living standards includes not only the medical aspect, but also social, economic and emotional aspect. Polish population is a high risk zone regarding multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was a preliminary assessment of selected environmental exposure factors in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis with regard to exposure to tobacco smoke with the author's survey of patients from the region of Upper Silesia. Most MS patients (32) in the study group (suffering from MS from 2 to 44 years) are inhabitants of agglomeration of over 50 thousand citizens, from the area of Gliwice, Bytom and Zabrze (43.75%). In investigated group 46.88% MS patients from Silesia region were exposed to tobacco smoke, of which 21.88% actively smoke. Patients with MS, in order not to worsen their disease manifestation, should stop smoking and increase, if possible, any physical activities. These data will be incorporated into a wide-ranging research to clarify the role of selected environmental factors in a very complex and still not fully explored the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis in Upper Silesia.

A relatively new device, described by producers as a device to help smokers quit, nicotine inhaler is an electronic (e-cigarette). Its mission is to provide the body with small doses of nicotine behavior "ceremonial" burning product is not tested for efficacy and toxicity The aim of this study was to compare the effects of nicotine absorbed from cigarette conventional and electronic changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Because of the potential interaction of carbon monoxide contained in cigarette smoke and nicotine conventional to changes on the parameters is also going to examine changes in the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin after smoking cigarettes and using e-cigarettes. study group consisted of 42 people, including 21 women and 21 men aged from 18 to 62 years who declared daily cigarette smoking. In this study it was found that as a result of cigarette smoking are increasing all the analyzed conventional hemodynamic parameters, these increases probably normally associated with nicotine absorbed by the smoker with the smoke. It was also a clear increase in carboxyhemoglobin, which is associated with a high concentration of carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke. If you use the e-cigarettes tested were observed increases in diastolic blood pressure and pulse, but none of the parameters did not change significantly, indicating that either the use of e-cigarette by the respondents did not supply the body with absorbable nicotine or for the increase in haemodynamic parameters studied did not correspond only nicotine but also other smoke constituents that interact with nicotine to the smoker body as carbon monoxide.

Endocrine glands are well vascularized and the structure of their vessels facilitates the exchange of various substances, including hormones. These glands are a frequent experimental model in research on VEGF and angiogenesis. VEGF participates in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy is in essence a microvascular disease that develops as a result of a confluence of hemodynamic and metabolic perturbations. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is the leading cause of blindness. In diabetic retinopathy ischemic states and hence tissue hypoxia and angiogenesis takes place. Participation of angiogenesis and VEGF in pathogenesis of neoplastic disease is described in many papers. VEGF protein and mRNA were found in cancers of the thyroid, bronchus, lungs, esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, breast, ovary, uterus, kidney, urinary bladder, in malignant tumors of the brain, bone. In a series of reports connections between the degree of VEGF expression with tumor aggressiveness and prognosis in patients have been reported. Richly vascularized are GEP NET. In neuroendocrine tumors strong expression of VEGF, Flt-1 and KDR in relation to the unchanged surrounding tissues has been demonstrated. Depending on the disease entity or the degree of its severity attempts of application the angiogenic and antiangiogenic therapy are being made. Antiangiogenic therapy (usually regarded as a form of cancer therapy) is based on: inhibitory effects of proangiogenic ligands and their receptors; stimulation or delivery of angiogenesis inhibitors; direct destruction of neoplastic tumor vasculature.

Zielinska-Danch W.,Slaski University Medyczny
Przegla̧d lekarski | Year: 2012

In recent years a water pipe gains popularity among Polish young people. Unfortunately, young people use it to burn not only tobacco, but also other addictive and psychoactive substances. The aim of the study was to assess the phenomenon of using a water pipe to smoke psychoactive substances by young people. The study was conducted based on the author's guestionnaire. The anonymous test was conducted throughout Poland, selecting randomly ten high schools and two universities from each province. In the survey participated 19 037 people from the region of Poland. 83% of them were high school pupils aged 15-19 years and 17% of them were students aged 20-25 years. 38% of volunteers at least once in their life have smoked a water pipe, and 22% have smoked it during last 30 days. Apart from tobacco 38% of the smoking people used also, apart from the tobacco designet for smoking in a water pipe, psychoactive substances. The most common is marihuana. 16% of school pupils and 17% of students used marihuana, 14% and 15% hashish, 8% and 11% crack, and 11% and 15% boosters. Presented data from all-Poland research conducted among school pupils and students illustrate only occasional and sporadic experience in drug use and the outright conclusions about the scale of the permanent use of psychoactive substances can not be drawn. A social aspect of a water pipe smoking is favourable to an alcohol consumption and lots of with different psychoactive substances. Due to the scale of the problem it is advisable to do in-depth research about the described phenomenon. It is also advisable to conduct more intensive programs to promote healthy behaviors and increase more attention to the reasons of such behaviour among young people.

In patients with advanced liver cirrhosis endoscopic images of large bowel are still poorly recognized in comparison with upper digestive tract. At present, the colonoscopy is examination routinely performed during qualification to liver transplantation. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze colonoscopic reports and to assess a safety of all procedures realized before and during colonoscopy. The study included 46 patients with liver cirrhosis (males 54.4%, females 45.6%) at age of 18-66 years, hospitalized between 2007-2009 for qualification to liver transplantation. Colonoscopy was done in short general sedation, and standard bowel preparation involved 256 g of polyethylene glycol dissolved in 4 liters of fluid given to the patient one day before colonoscopy. In 26.1% of patients no pathology was found on colonoscopy. Anal/rectal varices were found in 41.3% of patients, lesions classified as portal colopathy in 13% of patients and sigmoid diverticula in 8.7% of patients. In 17 (37%) of patients colonoscopy disclosed 46 polyps in large bowel (38 polyps in 12 patients were retrieved for histopathological examination). In 4 (8.7%) patients polyps were hyperplastic, in 6 (about 13%) tubular adenomas of low grade dysplasia and in 2 (4.35%) tubulo-villous adenomas of low grade dysplasia. Tubulo-villous adenomas were found only in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Colonoscopy did not worsen the general clinical state of any patient, however, as compared with compensated cirrhotics, the patients with ascites and/or peripheral edema showed features of water retention (larger body mass changes -0.50 +1.21 kg vs 0.23 +1.38 kg; p < 0.05). After colonoscopy a significant increase of body temperature by 0.23 +0.30 degrees C; p < 0.001 was noted, while examination had no significant effect on serum creatinine level and white blood cell number. Liver cirrhosis may predispose to certain diseases of the large bowel, including portal colopathy and adenomatous polyps. Procedures accomplished before and during colonoscopy seem to be safe for cirrhotic patients, however, in decompensated cirrhosis exists a tendency to further water retention.

Waterpipe has been used for many centuries in Asia and Africa regions to smoke tobacco leaves. In recent years it has been gaining popularity also among adolescents and youths in Poland. The aim of the study was to examine waterpipe smoking prevalence among adolescents living in Silesia region of Poland. We investigated if waterpipe is used as alternative way to smoke tobacco and awareness among adolescents about heath risk of waterpipe smoking. We surveyed 769 students of high schools located in Silesia region of Poland. Mean age of surveyed students was 16.5 years, and 52.5% were females. Our results showed that prevalence of waterpipe was higher than cigarette smoking (46.7% vs. 34.6%). Prevalence of waterpipe smoking among girls was almost the same as among boys. Most of the surveyed students used waterpipe as an alternative tool to smoke tobacco. The prevalence of waterpipe smoking among Polish adolescents is very high. There is an urgent need for education about health risks of waterpipe use in Poland.

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