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de Langhe E.,Catholic University of Leuven | de Langhe E.,University Hospitals Leuven | Vande Velde G.,Catholic University of Leuven | Hostens J.,SkyScan | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: In vivo high-resolution micro-computed tomography allows for longitudinal image-based measurements in animal models of lung disease. The combination of repetitive high resolution imaging with fully automated quantitative image analysis in mouse models of lung fibrosis lung benefits preclinical research. This study aimed to develop and validate such an automated micro-computed tomography analysis algorithm for quantification of aerated lung volume in mice; an indicator of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema severity. Methodology: Mice received an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (n = 8), elastase (0.25U elastase n = 9, 0.5U elastase n = 8) or saline control (n = 6 for fibrosis, n = 5 for emphysema). A subset of mice was scanned without intervention, to evaluate potential radiation-induced toxicity (n = 4). Some bleomycin-instilled mice were treated with imatinib for proof of concept (n = 8). Mice were scanned weekly, until four weeks after induction, when they underwent pulmonary function testing, lung histology and collagen quantification. Aerated lung volumes were calculated with our automated algorithm. Principal Findings: Our automated image-based aerated lung volume quantification method is reproducible with low intra-subject variability. Bleomycin-treated mice had significantly lower scan-derived aerated lung volumes, compared to controls. Aerated lung volume correlated with the histopathological fibrosis score and total lung collagen content. Inversely, a dose-dependent increase in lung volume was observed in elastase-treated mice. Serial scanning of individual mice is feasible and visualized dynamic disease progression. No radiation-induced toxicity was observed. Three-dimensional images provided critical topographical information. Conclusions: We report on a high resolution in vivo micro-computed tomography image analysis algorithm that runs fully automated and allows quantification of aerated lung volume in mice. This method is reproducible with low inherent measurement variability. We show that it is a reliable quantitative tool to investigate experimental lung fibrosis and emphysema in mice. Its non-invasive nature has the unique benefit to allow dynamic 4D evaluation of disease processes and therapeutic interventions. © 2012 De Langhe et al.

News Article | September 30, 2016

Bruker’s SkyScan 1276 microCT (X-ray micro-Computed Tomography) combines high resolution, speed, accessibility and other innovations to advance improved in vivo scanning of small laboratory animals and of in vitro biological samples in preclinical studies. With continuously variable magnification, including a smallest pixel size of 2.8 µm, and a shortest scanning cycle of 3.9 sec., the imaging system gives researchers access to highest-quality images at higher throughput. The system also features InstaRecon technology to reconstruct images up to 8000x8000 pixels per slice, faster than any other conventional algorithm. Researchers will also benefit from easy system control by a user-friendly touchscreen and the ability to view and share images on any iOS or android mobile device. Bruker Corp., 978-663-3660

Sasov A.,SkyScan
2nd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography | Year: 2014

For many years scientists have worked with various microscopy methods, starting with optical going to electron and x-ray microscopy, AFM and scanning probe microscopy etc. These currently known and commonly used microscopic techniques have one common limitation: they give no information about internal structures of the investigated object. Except for x-ray, they can only visualize the surface of the specimens. If three-dimensional images from internal structures are required they become destructive. X-ray microtomograph or micro-CT is an instrument that allows looking, with high spatial resolution, inside an object and thus creating three-dimensional images without any destruction or time-consuming specimen preparation. By using high technology the microtomograph has been created as a simply usable, desktop instrument. © 2014 International Society for Industrial Process Tomography.

Sasov A.,SkyScan | SkyScan,SkyScan
2nd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography | Year: 2014

X-ray microlaminography allows getting local depth information from the big flat objects like PCBs and electronic assemblies, which cannot be reconstructed by tomographical approach. According to the needs in high-resolution inspection for electronic and micromechanical industries an X-ray microlaminography system has been developed. This instrument based on a new approach for the xray geometry with a minimum of moving parts and a digital extraction of depth information (tomosynthesis) about all layers during one fast scan. The main application areas are BGA inspection, Flip-Chips, multilayer PCBs, micromechanics (watch, etc.). © 2014 International Society for Industrial Process Tomography.

Bruyndonckx P.,SkyScan | Sasov A.,SkyScan | Liu X.,SkyScan
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

A prototype micro-XRF laboratory system based on pinhole imaging was developed to produce 3D elemental maps. The fluorescence x-rays are detected by a deep-depleted CCD camera operating in photon-counting mode. A charge-clustering algorithm, together with dynamically adjusted exposure times, ensures a correct energy measurement. The XRF component has a spatial resolution of 70 μm and an energy resolution of 180 eV at 6.4 keV. The system is augmented by a micro-CT imaging modality. This is used for attenuation correction of the XRF images and to co-register features in the 3D XRF images with morphological structures visible in the volumetric CT images of the object. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Defrise M.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Vanhove C.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Liu X.,Skyscan
Inverse Problems | Year: 2011

This paper describes an iterative algorithm for high-dimensional linear inverse problems, which is regularized by a differentiable discrete approximation of the total variation (TV) penalty. The algorithm is an interlaced iterative method based on optimization transfer with a separable quadratic surrogate for the TV penalty. The surrogate cost function is optimized using the block iterative regularized algebraic reconstruction technique (RSART). A proof of convergence is given and convergence is illustrated by numerical experiments with simulated parallel-beam computerized tomography (CT) data. The proposed method provides a block-iterative and convergent, hence efficient and reliable, algorithm to investigate the effects of TV regularization in applications such as CT. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Sasov A.,SkyScan | Pauwels B.,SkyScan | Bruyndonckx P.,SkyScan
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

Most X-ray systems are limited in spatial resolution by the x-ray source performance. In laboratory sources, x-rays are generated by the interaction of an electron beam with a metal target. Bulk target sources produce a spot size in the micron range. Thin layer targets allow a spot size improvement down to hundreds of nanometers, but with a significant flux reduction. Until now a spatial resolution under 100 nm could only be achieved by imaging with Fresnel zone plates with limited depth of focus, typically - several microns. This is acceptable for imaging of flat objects, but it creates a problem for tomography, which requires all parts of a bulk object to be in focus. To overcome the limitations, we invented an x-ray source with a new type of target. Because x-ray cameras can only collect photons from a small angle, the new emitter is physically shaped in such way that the camera can see it as a small dot, but it has a big length along the direction perpendicular to the camera creating a significant flux without compromising the resolution. Evaluation shows that structures down to 50 nm can be distinguished while maintaining a significant x-ray flux and infinite depth of focus required for nano-tomographical reconstruction. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Bruyndonckx P.,SkyScan | Sasov A.,SkyScan | Liu X.,SkyScan | Van Geert J.,SkyScan
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) allows imaging of the chemical composition of a specimen. We developed a 2nd generation prototype laboratory system that can produce 3D chemical maps using microXRF as well as volumetric microCT images. The latter can be used to overlay morphological information on top of the XRF image for co-registration. It is also employed for attenuation correction during the tomographic reconstruction of the XRF images. The new system has various hardware and software changes to improve the performance, stability and flexibility. A deep depleted CCD was employed to improve the detection efficiency for high-energy fluorescence X rays. The use of a deep depleted CCD requires signal-clustering techniques to correct for charge diffusion in the CCD to obtain the correct energy of the fluorescence x rays. Furthermore, energy drift correction techniques were put in place to ensure stability of energy measurement during very long scan times. To minimize the contribution of the long CCD readout times to the total scan time, the exposure frames are dynamically adjust during the scan to the maximum time allowed for operation under photon counting mode. The XRF component has a spatial resolution of 70 μm and an energy resolution of 180 eV at 6.4 keV. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Pauwels B.,SkyScan | Liu X.,SkyScan | Sasov A.,SkyScan
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

We have developed an x-ray computer tomography (CT) add-on to perform X-ray micro- and nanotomography in any scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electron beam inside the SEM is focused on a metal target to generate x-rays. Part of the X-rays pass through the object that is installed on a rotation stage. Shadow X-ray images are collected by a CCD camera with direct photon detection mounted on the external wall of the SEM specimen chamber. An extensive description on the working principles of this micro/nano-CT add-on together with some examples of CT-scans will be given in this paper. The resolution that can be obtained with this set-up and the influence of the shape of the electron beam are discussed. Furthermore, possible improvements on this SEM-CT set-up will be discussed: replacing the backilluminated CCD with a fully depleted CCD with improved quantum efficiency (QE) for higher energies, reduces the exposure time by 6 when using metal targets with x-ray characteristic lines around 10 keV. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Bruyndonckx P.,Skyscan | Sasov A.,Skyscan | Pauwels B.,Skyscan
Powder Diffraction | Year: 2010

We have demonstrated that structures down to 150 nm can be visualized in X-ray projection images using nanofocus X-ray sources. Due to their unlimited depth of focus, they do not possess a limit on the specimen size. This is essential for three-dimensional tomographic imaging of samples with a diameter larger than a few microns. Further simulation studies have shown that optimization of the detector response curve and switching from a reflective X-ray target to a transmission target should allow us to reach sub-100-nm resolutions. © 2010 International Centre for Diffraction Data.

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