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de Langhe E.,Catholic University of Leuven | de Langhe E.,University Hospitals Leuven | Vande Velde G.,Catholic University of Leuven | Hostens J.,SkyScan | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: In vivo high-resolution micro-computed tomography allows for longitudinal image-based measurements in animal models of lung disease. The combination of repetitive high resolution imaging with fully automated quantitative image analysis in mouse models of lung fibrosis lung benefits preclinical research. This study aimed to develop and validate such an automated micro-computed tomography analysis algorithm for quantification of aerated lung volume in mice; an indicator of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema severity. Methodology: Mice received an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (n = 8), elastase (0.25U elastase n = 9, 0.5U elastase n = 8) or saline control (n = 6 for fibrosis, n = 5 for emphysema). A subset of mice was scanned without intervention, to evaluate potential radiation-induced toxicity (n = 4). Some bleomycin-instilled mice were treated with imatinib for proof of concept (n = 8). Mice were scanned weekly, until four weeks after induction, when they underwent pulmonary function testing, lung histology and collagen quantification. Aerated lung volumes were calculated with our automated algorithm. Principal Findings: Our automated image-based aerated lung volume quantification method is reproducible with low intra-subject variability. Bleomycin-treated mice had significantly lower scan-derived aerated lung volumes, compared to controls. Aerated lung volume correlated with the histopathological fibrosis score and total lung collagen content. Inversely, a dose-dependent increase in lung volume was observed in elastase-treated mice. Serial scanning of individual mice is feasible and visualized dynamic disease progression. No radiation-induced toxicity was observed. Three-dimensional images provided critical topographical information. Conclusions: We report on a high resolution in vivo micro-computed tomography image analysis algorithm that runs fully automated and allows quantification of aerated lung volume in mice. This method is reproducible with low inherent measurement variability. We show that it is a reliable quantitative tool to investigate experimental lung fibrosis and emphysema in mice. Its non-invasive nature has the unique benefit to allow dynamic 4D evaluation of disease processes and therapeutic interventions. © 2012 De Langhe et al. Source


Sasov A.,SkyScan
2nd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography | Year: 2014

For many years scientists have worked with various microscopy methods, starting with optical going to electron and x-ray microscopy, AFM and scanning probe microscopy etc. These currently known and commonly used microscopic techniques have one common limitation: they give no information about internal structures of the investigated object. Except for x-ray, they can only visualize the surface of the specimens. If three-dimensional images from internal structures are required they become destructive. X-ray microtomograph or micro-CT is an instrument that allows looking, with high spatial resolution, inside an object and thus creating three-dimensional images without any destruction or time-consuming specimen preparation. By using high technology the microtomograph has been created as a simply usable, desktop instrument. © 2014 International Society for Industrial Process Tomography. Source


Defrise M.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Vanhove C.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Liu X.,SkyScan
Inverse Problems | Year: 2011

This paper describes an iterative algorithm for high-dimensional linear inverse problems, which is regularized by a differentiable discrete approximation of the total variation (TV) penalty. The algorithm is an interlaced iterative method based on optimization transfer with a separable quadratic surrogate for the TV penalty. The surrogate cost function is optimized using the block iterative regularized algebraic reconstruction technique (RSART). A proof of convergence is given and convergence is illustrated by numerical experiments with simulated parallel-beam computerized tomography (CT) data. The proposed method provides a block-iterative and convergent, hence efficient and reliable, algorithm to investigate the effects of TV regularization in applications such as CT. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Sasov A.,SkyScan | SkyScan,SkyScan
2nd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography | Year: 2014

X-ray microlaminography allows getting local depth information from the big flat objects like PCBs and electronic assemblies, which cannot be reconstructed by tomographical approach. According to the needs in high-resolution inspection for electronic and micromechanical industries an X-ray microlaminography system has been developed. This instrument based on a new approach for the xray geometry with a minimum of moving parts and a digital extraction of depth information (tomosynthesis) about all layers during one fast scan. The main application areas are BGA inspection, Flip-Chips, multilayer PCBs, micromechanics (watch, etc.). © 2014 International Society for Industrial Process Tomography. Source


Bruyndonckx P.,SkyScan | Sasov A.,SkyScan | Liu X.,SkyScan
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

A prototype micro-XRF laboratory system based on pinhole imaging was developed to produce 3D elemental maps. The fluorescence x-rays are detected by a deep-depleted CCD camera operating in photon-counting mode. A charge-clustering algorithm, together with dynamically adjusted exposure times, ensures a correct energy measurement. The XRF component has a spatial resolution of 70 μm and an energy resolution of 180 eV at 6.4 keV. The system is augmented by a micro-CT imaging modality. This is used for attenuation correction of the XRF images and to co-register features in the 3D XRF images with morphological structures visible in the volumetric CT images of the object. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. Source

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