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Shalimar, India

Sofi J.A.,Soil Science | Bhat A.G.,Soil Science | Kirmai N.A.,Soil Science | Wani J.A.,Soil Science | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2016

Soil quality assessment provides a tool for evaluating the sustainability of soils under different crop cafeterias. Our objective was to develop the soil quality index for evaluating the soil quality indicators under different cropping systems in northwest Himalaya-India. Composite soil samples were taken from the study area from different cropping systems which include T1 (forest soil control), T2 (rice-oilseed, lower belts), T3 (rice-oilseed, higher belts), T4 (rice-oats), T5 (rice-fallow), T6 (maize-oats), T7 (maize-peas), T8 (apple), T9 (apple-beans), and T10 (apple-maize). Physical, chemical, and biological soil indicators were determined, and it was found that soil enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling were significantly higher in forest soils, which were reflected in higher levels of available pool of nutrients. Carbon stocks were found significantly higher in forest soil which was translated in improved soil physical condition. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce multidimensionality of data followed by scoring by homothetic transformation of the selected indicators. Pearson’s interclass correlation was performed to avoid redundancy, and highly correlated variables were not retained. Inclusion of legumes in the apple orchard floor recorded highest soil quality rating across the treatments. Cereal-based cropping systems were found in lower soil quality rating; however, the incorporation of peas in the system improved soil health. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Kumar R.,SKUAST Kashmir | Shankar V.,National Institute of Technology Hamirpur | Jat M.K.,Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur
ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering | Year: 2015

Estimation of root water uptake and water movement in plants is crucial to quantify transpiration and hence the water exchange between land surface and atmosphere through plants. Present paper is aimed to illustrate and discuss how mathematical modeling can be used for understanding of plants and, in particular, plant-soil interactions. Soil water movement due to root water uptake is a key process for plant growth and transport of water in the soil plant system. There are different root water uptake models which can be used for estimation of moisture uptake by plants. The accuracy of moisture uptake prediction by plants depends on selection of proper mathematical models. Root uptake models are available in different forms i.e. linear, nonlinear, and exponential. In this paper, a detailed review of the most commonly used models which are suitable for the estimation of moisture uptake by plants in different agro-climatic regions is presented. Further, an effort has been made to compare the performance of different widely used models under controlled condition and future research needs are outlined. © 2014 © 2014 Indian Society for Hydraulics.

Sofi T.A.,SKUAST Kashmir | Tewari A.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Razdan V.K.,SKUAST Jammu | Koul V.K.,SKUAST Jammu
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2014

The effect of soil solarization on physical, chemical and biological properties of soil was studied, along with the response of cauliflower seedlings following solarization. Nursery beds were covered with transparent polyethylene sheet and soil temperature and moisture were recorded. Soil samples were collected five times for analysis. Three cauliflower nurseries were raised at 30-day intervals; germination was recorded 10 days after sowing and seedling length 30 days after sowing. The maximum temperature in solarized soil ranged from 40.2-47.2°C, with an increase of 5.2° to 9.9°C over non-solarized soil. There was a conservation of 5.48% moisture in solarized soil as compared with non-solarized. Solarization significantly increased electrical conductivity, organic carbon, nitrogen and potassium over pre-solarized soil. The mean pH, EC, Ca, Mg, N, P, K and C recorded in solarized soil was higher than in non-solarized. Soil solarization reduced the population of fungi from 25.68 x 104 to 4.8 x 104, bacteria from 20.28 x 106 to 5.66 x 106, actinomycetes from 31.60 x 105 to 4.40 x 105, and reduction in population was recorded even after 90 days, when compared with non-solarized soil. Solarization effectively reduced (>97%) population of plant parasitic and free living nematodes. Cauliflower seedlings in solarized soil had a better vigor index than non-solarized soil. Present findings reveal that soil solarization could be exploited for nutrient management and soilborne pests control, with a better vigor index of vegetable nursery. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Kumar R.,SKUAST Kashmir | Jat M.K.,Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur | Shankar V.,National Institute of Technology Hamirpur
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2013

Soil water movement due to root water uptake is a key process for plant growth and transport of water in the soil plant system. The accuracy of prediction extraction rate by plants depends on selection of proper mathematical models. The water uptake by plant roots has been simulated both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The microscopic approach requires detailed information about the dynamic geometry of the plant root system that is practically not available. In the macroscopic approach, a sink term, representing water extraction by plant roots is included in the dynamic water flow equation and the spatial and temporal uptake is controlled by the soil moisture and the plant demand. Different pattern of moisture uptake including constant, linear and exponential are available in various models. Relevant literature points out that a non-linear, exponential and logarithmic macroscopic root water uptake model is popular due to their improved prediction efficiency. In this paper most commonly used models which are suitable for the estimation of moisture uptake by plants in different agro-climatic regions are reviewed and a field study of macroscopic model has been given. Model predicted soil-moisture parameters i.e., moisture depletion, moisture status at various depths and soil moisture profile in root zone are compared with experimental results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Saleem Mir M.,SKUAST Kashmir | Darzi M.M.,SKUAST Kashmir | Khan H.M.,MRCSG | Kamil S.A.,SKUAST Kashmir | And 2 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Pathology | Year: 2014

Background & Objectives: Alloxan & streptozotocin are used for inducing diabetic models. Their combination has been used to reduce the individual chemical dosage and minimize the side effects. Present investigation was aimed at studying pre-diabetic clinical changes induced by low doses of Alloxan-STZ cocktail in rabbits. Materials and Methods: New Zealand White rabbits, 1-1.5 kg body weight, were administered alloxan (@50 mg/kg b.w.) and STZ (@ 35mg/kg b.w.) cocktail, as single intravenous dose. Blood glucose levels were monitored (0 h, 20 min, 1 h, and then hourly up to 9 h) and clinical signs noted. Rabbits surviving up to 9 hours were given glucose therapy. Results: The cocktail caused immediate transient hypoglycaemia, followed by hyperglycaemia, and then progressively severe hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia caused characteristic behavioural alterations from lethargy, through aesthesia, muscular weakness to recumbency. Severely affected rabbits revealed intermittent convulsions and died in coma. Conclusion: Low dose Alloxan-STZ cocktail induced triphasic immediate response in rabbits. The behavioural changes reflected glycaemic status serving as a guide for institution of glucose therapy.

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