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Srīnagar, India

Hafiz Y.,SKUAST K | Iqbal A.,SKUAST | Ahmad M.,Private Field Veterinarian | Wani N.,SKUAST K | Willayat M.M.,SKUAST K
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology

The present study describes the prevalence of Bacillus cereus isolated from mutton tikka and chutney samples in different seasons in Kashmir valley. A total of 100 street vended food samples comprising of 60 mutton tikka and 40 chutney samples were tested. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 27 of the mutton tikka and 13 of the chutney samples resulting in overall prevalence of 45% and 32.5%, respectively. The field isolates and the standard strains of Bacillus cereus had similar cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Source

Kumar A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Solanki I.S.,ADG F and FC ICAR | Akhtar J.,ICAR | Gupta V.,SKUAST
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology

Brown spot of paddy is prevalent in all the rice growing countries of the world and most of the cultivars grown are susceptible to this pathogen. Though the disease is considered to be minor one, it is increasingly posing a serious emerging threat. A field experiment on management of brown spot of paddy was carried out in two consecutive Kharif seasons (2012, 2013) on two aromatic rice varieties Pusa Sugandh-4 and Pusa Sugandh-5 in hot spot area for brown spot disease at IARI Regional Station Pusa (Bihar). Eleven different treatment combinations involving combination of fungicides and bioagent were used in this experiment. The approach of seed treatment, seedling dip and foliar spray alone and in combination was tried against brown spot of paddy. The disease data was recorded in three stages for disease rating using SES of IRRI. T8, Seed treatment with Carboxin 37.5% and Thiram 37.5% WS @2.5 gm kg-1 seed and Seedling dip in suspension of Pseudomonas flourescens @ 10gm/ litre followed by two sprays of Propiconazole 25% EC @0.1% at 45 days and 60 days after transplanting gave best result. Minimum disease severity and maximum yield was observed under this treatment combination. As far as only seed treatment is concerned a fungicidal combination of Carboxin 37.5% and Thiram 37.5% WS @2.5 gm kg-1 seed was found superior than other seed treated plots. An yield advantage of 13.6 q/ha in Pusa sugandh-4 and 22 q/ha in Pusa Sugandh-5 has been observed over control. The increased incidence of this disease in recent years and lack of information about suitable management strategies based on field observations are the key drivers in formulation of this experiment. Source

Gupta R.D.,SKUAST | Arora S.,SKUAST J | Gupta G.D.,Soil Survey Land Use Planning | Sumberia N.M.,SKUAST J
Tropical Ecology

Physical properties of some soils from foothills of Siwaliks of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir State were studied. Clay content was the highest in soils of forest profiles, followed by those under cultivated unmanaged and well-managed profiles, and least in soils of barren land profiles. Soils of barren lands showed the highest values of bulk density (1.47 to 1.60 g cm-3), followed by cultivated unmanaged (1.46 to 1.58 g cm-3), cultivated well-managed lands (1.34 to 1.54 g cm-3), and least in those of forest lands (1.32 to 1.52 g cm-3). The values of particle density decreased in the order: barren lands (2.57 to 2.68 g cm-3) > cultivated unmanaged (2.52 to 2.67 g cm-3) > cultivated well-managed (2.44 to 2.62 g cm-3) > forest lands (2.38 to 2.62 g cm-3). Soils of forest lands had generally higher values of pore space (41.4 to 47.2 %) followed by cultivated well-managed lands (41.4 to 45.1%), barren (40.1 to 43.4%) and unmanaged cultivated lands (40.0 to 43.2%). Water holding capacity (%) ranged from 21.9 to 32.2, 30.5 to 40.5, 35.4 to 47.5 and 35.3 to 47.3 in soils of barren, cultivated unmanaged, cultivated well managed and forest lands, respectively. Soils of forest lands showed highest values of moisture equivalent (23.4%) and lowest in those of barren lands (15.7%), while there was not much difference in the moisture equivalent values of soils belonging to cultivated unmanaged (21.5%) and cultivated well-managed (22.9%) lands. Erosion and dispersion ratio were positively and significantly correlated with particle and bulk density. Water holding capacity and moisture equivalents were positively related to organic carbon content, and negatively related to erosion and dispersion ratio. © International Society for Tropical Ecology. Source

Kumar R.,SKUAST | Bhakar S.R.,CTAE | Singh P.K.,CTAE
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal

The present study revealed the performance of subsurface drainage systems for long-term sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The performance of subsurface drainage systems was evaluated on the basis of drain spacing equations for disposal of effluent and hydraulic characteristics of envelop materials, like entrance resistance created by envelop and hydraulic conductivity. Three important synthetic envelopes, HG 22, SAPP 240 and CAN 2 were tested in laboratory using sand tank model and permeability apparatus to compare their performances in terms of entrance resistance and hydraulic conductivity of soil envelope system. The hydraulic conductivity for SAPP 240 filter was found the highest and entrance resistance the lowest. Performance of four unsteady state drain spacing equations viz. Glover-Dumm, Van Schilfgaarde, Integrated Hooghoudt and Modified Glover equations were also tested to evaluate disposal efficiency of excess water. The percentage deviation between predicted drain spacing and actual spacing was -33.31% to -31.55%, 9.40% to 17.07%, 11.84% to 20.83% and 6.10% to 14.62% for Glover-Dumm, Van Schilfgaarde, Integrated Hooghoudt and Modified Glover equations, respectively. Modified Glover equation showed minimum deviation from actual drain spacing due to its versatile applicability. Therefore, the Modified Glover equation with SAPP 240 filter was recommended for subsurface drainage system in sandy soil texture areas. Source

Asif M.,SKUAST | Zargar M.Y.,Regional Research Station
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences

This study was carried out at the forest nursery of Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture and Regional Research Station, Wadura SKUAST-K, Sopore, Kashmir during 2006 and 2007 to examine the role of live biofertilizers in litter decomposition and nutrient release in Salix fragilis under natural Salix stands. The experiment was laid in completely randomised design with three replications which comprised five treatment combinations of 5 inoculants (no-inoculant; Azotobacter, Chroococcum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, effective microorganisms and combinations of Azotobacter chroococcum + Pseudomonas fluorescens + effective microorganisms). Higher rate of decomposition of Salix fragilis litter was recorded in June (89.29%). Lower rate of decomposition of the species was recorded in January (39.07%). Plant N, P, K, Ca, and Mg release showed an increasing trend from July onwards upto November and immobilization of above nutrients was observed in December and January. However, in the succeeding months an increasing trend in the nutrient release was observed. Highest nutrient release was recorded under combined inoculation of Azotobacter chrococcum + Psedomonas fluorescens + effective microorganisms followed by effective microorganims as compared to other treatments and control. Combined biofertilizer inoculation resulted in a significant increase in total viable bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes followed by effective microorganisms, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azotobacter chroococcum and control respectively. Thus the treatment combination of Azotobacter ch ococcum + Pseudomonas fluerescens + effective microorganisms proved to be the best for decomposition of Salix fragilis litter and nutrient release. Source

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