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Orekhov A.N.,Skolkovo Innovation Center | Bobryshev Y.V.,University of New South Wales | Chistiakov D.A.,Moscow State University
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2014

Pericytes, which are also known as Rouget cells or perivascular cells, are considered to represent a likely distinct pool of vascular cells that are extremely branched and located mostly in the periphery of the vascular system. The family of pericytes is a heterogeneous cell population that includes pericytes and pericyte-like cells. Accumulated data indicate that networks of pericyte-like cells exist in normal non-atherosclerotic intima, and that pericyte-like cells can be involved in the development of atherosclerotic lesions from the very early stages of disease. The pathogenic role of arterial pericytes and pericyte-like cells also might be important in advanced and complicated atherosclerotic lesions via realizing mechanisms of vascular remodelling, ectopic ossification, intraplaque neovascularization, and probably thrombosis. © The Author 2014. Source


Dymarsky A.,Skolkovo Innovation Center
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract: We discuss to what extent the full set of Ward Identities constrain the four-point function of the stress-energy tensors or conserved currents in a conformal field theory. We calculate the number of kinematically unrestricted functional degrees of freedom governing the corresponding correlators and find that it matches the number of functional degrees of freedom governing scattering amplitudes of some “dual” massless particles in the auxiliary Minkowski space. We also formulate the conformal bootstrap constraints for the correlators in question in terms of only unrestricted degrees of freedom. As a by-product we find interesting parallels between solving Ward Identities in coordinate and momentum space. © 2015, The Author(s). Source


Sobenin I.A.,Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology | Sazonova M.A.,Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology | Postnov A.Y.,Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex | Bobryshev Y.V.,University of New South Wales | And 2 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2013

Electron-microscopic analysis of atherosclerotic lesions demonstrated a high variability in the ultrastructural appearance of mitochondria in human aortic atherosclerotic lesions compared with the appearance of mitochondria in the normal parts of the aortic intima. This prompted us to suggest that the structural variations in the appearance of mitochondria might reflect the existence of somatic mutations in the human mitochondrial genome which could be a determinant of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the levels of heteroplasmy for several mitochondrial mutations previously proposed to be associated with different types of atherosclerotic lesions. The homogenates of unaffected aortic intimae and lipofibrous plaques of 12 male aortas were compared to reveal the average level of heteroplasmy for A1555G, C3256T, T3336T, G12315A, G14459A, and G15059A mutations of human mitochondrial genome. It has been shown at least four mutations of mitochondrial genome, namely, A1555G in MT-RNR1 gene, C3256T in MT-TL1 gene, G12315A in MT-TL2 gene, and G15059A in MT-CYB gene have significantly higher prevalence and mean value in lipofibrous plaques as compared to non-atherosclerotic intima, and therefore are associated with atherosclerosis. Somatic mutations in the human mitochondrial genome might play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. The mitochondrial mutations observed in our study should encourage further exploration of the concept that mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy might be used as a biomarker of atherogenesis. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Litsarev M.S.,Skolkovo Innovation Center | Oseledets I.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2016

We present a method for solving the reaction-diffusion equation with general potential in free space. It is based on the approximation of the Feynman-Kac formula by a sequence of convolutions on sequentially diminishing grids. For computation of the convolutions we propose a fast algorithm based on the low-rank approximation of the Hankel matrices. The algorithm has complexity of O(nrMlogM+nr2M) flops and requires O(Mr) floating-point numbers in memory, where n is the dimension of the integral, r≪ n, and M is the mesh size in one dimension. The presented technique can be generalized to the higher-order diffusion processes. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Kwon M.-C.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Proost N.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Song J.-Y.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Sutherland K.D.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | And 4 more authors.
Genes and Development | Year: 2015

Tumor heterogeneity can create a unique symbiotic tumor microenvironment. Earlier, we showed that clonal evolution in mouse small cell lung cancer (SCLC) can result in subclones that, upon cografting, endow the neuroendocrine tumor cells with metastatic potential. We now show that paracrine signaling between SCLC subclones is a critical requirement in the early steps of the metastatic process, such as local invasion and intravasation. We further show evidence that paracrine signaling via fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2) and Mapk between these diverged tumor subclones causes enhanced expression of the Pea3 (polyomavirus enhancer activator 3) transcription factor, resulting in metastatic dissemination of the neuroendocrine tumor subclones. Our data reveal for the first time paracrine signaling between tumor cell subclones in SCLC that results in metastatic spread of SCLC. © 2015 Kwon et al. Source

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