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Wang Z.,Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Wang Z.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Zhou X.-F.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Zhou X.-F.,Nankai University | And 6 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2015

Using systematic evolutionary structure searching we propose a new carbon allotrope, phagraphene [fægræfi:n], standing for penta-hexa-hepta-graphene, because the structure is composed of 5-6-7 carbon rings. This two-dimensional (2D) carbon structure is lower in energy than most of the predicted 2D carbon allotropes due to its sp2-binding features and density of atomic packing comparable to graphene. More interestingly, the electronic structure of phagraphene has distorted Dirac cones. The direction-dependent cones are further proved to be robust against external strain with tunable Fermi velocities. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Sobenin I.A.,Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology | Sazonova M.A.,Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology | Postnov A.Y.,Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex | Bobryshev Y.V.,University of New South Wales | And 2 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2013

Electron-microscopic analysis of atherosclerotic lesions demonstrated a high variability in the ultrastructural appearance of mitochondria in human aortic atherosclerotic lesions compared with the appearance of mitochondria in the normal parts of the aortic intima. This prompted us to suggest that the structural variations in the appearance of mitochondria might reflect the existence of somatic mutations in the human mitochondrial genome which could be a determinant of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the levels of heteroplasmy for several mitochondrial mutations previously proposed to be associated with different types of atherosclerotic lesions. The homogenates of unaffected aortic intimae and lipofibrous plaques of 12 male aortas were compared to reveal the average level of heteroplasmy for A1555G, C3256T, T3336T, G12315A, G14459A, and G15059A mutations of human mitochondrial genome. It has been shown at least four mutations of mitochondrial genome, namely, A1555G in MT-RNR1 gene, C3256T in MT-TL1 gene, G12315A in MT-TL2 gene, and G15059A in MT-CYB gene have significantly higher prevalence and mean value in lipofibrous plaques as compared to non-atherosclerotic intima, and therefore are associated with atherosclerosis. Somatic mutations in the human mitochondrial genome might play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. The mitochondrial mutations observed in our study should encourage further exploration of the concept that mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy might be used as a biomarker of atherogenesis. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Orekhov A.N.,Skolkovo Innovation Center | Bobryshev Y.V.,University of New South Wales | Chistiakov D.A.,Moscow State University
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2014

Pericytes, which are also known as Rouget cells or perivascular cells, are considered to represent a likely distinct pool of vascular cells that are extremely branched and located mostly in the periphery of the vascular system. The family of pericytes is a heterogeneous cell population that includes pericytes and pericyte-like cells. Accumulated data indicate that networks of pericyte-like cells exist in normal non-atherosclerotic intima, and that pericyte-like cells can be involved in the development of atherosclerotic lesions from the very early stages of disease. The pathogenic role of arterial pericytes and pericyte-like cells also might be important in advanced and complicated atherosclerotic lesions via realizing mechanisms of vascular remodelling, ectopic ossification, intraplaque neovascularization, and probably thrombosis. © The Author 2014.

Shapeev A.V.,Skolkovo Innovation Center
Multiscale Modeling and Simulation | Year: 2016

Density functional theory offers a very accurate way of computing materials properties from first principles. However, it is too expensive for modeling large-scale molecular systems whose properties are, in contrast, computed using interatomic potentials. The present paper considers, from a mathematical point of view, the problem of constructing interatomic potentials that approximate a given quantum-mechanical interaction model. In particular, a new class of systematically improvable potentials is proposed, analyzed, and tested on an existing quantum-mechanical database. © 2016 Societ y for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Dymarsky A.,Skolkovo Innovation Center
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract: We discuss to what extent the full set of Ward Identities constrain the four-point function of the stress-energy tensors or conserved currents in a conformal field theory. We calculate the number of kinematically unrestricted functional degrees of freedom governing the corresponding correlators and find that it matches the number of functional degrees of freedom governing scattering amplitudes of some “dual” massless particles in the auxiliary Minkowski space. We also formulate the conformal bootstrap constraints for the correlators in question in terms of only unrestricted degrees of freedom. As a by-product we find interesting parallels between solving Ward Identities in coordinate and momentum space. © 2015, The Author(s).

Litsarev M.S.,Skolkovo Innovation Center | Oseledets I.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2016

We present a method for solving the reaction-diffusion equation with general potential in free space. It is based on the approximation of the Feynman-Kac formula by a sequence of convolutions on sequentially diminishing grids. For computation of the convolutions we propose a fast algorithm based on the low-rank approximation of the Hankel matrices. The algorithm has complexity of O(nrMlogM+nr2M) flops and requires O(Mr) floating-point numbers in memory, where n is the dimension of the integral, r≪ n, and M is the mesh size in one dimension. The presented technique can be generalized to the higher-order diffusion processes. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Krimpenfort P.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Berns A.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Berns A.,Skolkovo Innovation Center
Cell | Year: 2015

In mouse intestinal tumors induced by the inhibition of APC, the restoration of APC function causes complete tumor regression with normal differentiation and return of stem cell function irrespective of whether tumors also carried mutations in Kras and p53. These findings by Dow et al. validate the Wnt pathway as an exquisite target for intervention. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

News Article | September 28, 2012
Site: www.theverge.com

Mark Zuckerberg is set to meet with Russian prime minister Dmitry Medvedev on Monday during a trip to Russia, where Facebook use is growing. According to a report from French news agency AFP, the meeting will take place at the Skolkovo Innovation Center, a technology hub and science park being built on the outskirts of Moscow with support from American companies including Microsoft, Intel, and IBM. Zuckerberg will also attend the Facebook World Hack in Moscow on the same day. Medvedev, for his part, is known as a champion of social media While Zuckerberg's social empire currently plays second fiddle to the homegrown network VKontakte in Russia, it is still extremely popular. Medvedev, for his part, is known as a champion of social media, maintaining a pair of Twitter accounts in Russian and English with a combined following of more than 1.8 million users, alongside accounts on Facebook, VKontakte and LiveJournal. As AFP points out, Facebook's Russian connections run deep — investment firm Digital Sky Technologies (DST), run by oligarch Yuri Milner, is estimated to have built up a stake of more than 10 percent in the company prior to its May 18th IPO, beginning with a $200 million investment in 2009. Despite this, Zuckerberg has reportedly never visited the country, preferring to focus on operations back home in California.

News Article | June 25, 2012
Site: www.wired.com

In recent years, the US government has created research agencies for homeland security, intelligence, and energy — all modeled on the Pentagon’s mad-scientist arm, Darpa. Now Russia has gotten the bug, too. Russian industry and defense leaders announced plans last week to bankroll the Russian Foundation for Advanced Research Projects in the Defense Industry. Russia’s newly re-coronated president, Vladimir Putin, has already sent a bill to parliament to authorize the agency, which will be tasked with keeping track of projects that “can ensure Russian superiority in defense technology,” according to news service RIA Novosti. One possible location is near the Gromov Flight Research Institute — an experimental aircraft test base — to Moscow’s southeast. The future site, though, may also resemble the Skolkovo Innovation Center, a sort of Silicon Valley for Russia’s high-tech companies located on the city’s opposite end. But instead of focusing on civilian IT and biotech like at Skolkovo, the companies near Gromov would take charge of “all high-risk and fundamental research projects in the military-industrial complex,” Dmitry Rogozin, chief of Russia’s defense industry, said. Basically, Russia wants to modernize, and needs its own far-out research department to do it. Its military is getting old and risks becoming dependent on other (read: more advanced) countries. It’s also a part of a larger Russian push for more military tech. And there’s no telling what projects the agency could come up with. Perhaps the agency, when open for business, can take on the task of controlling our minds and constructing robots that will keep the human brain alive forever. It’s also necessary if Russia is serious about moving forward on plans to build advanced drones and new long-range bombers. Russia has a stealthy new fighter, the PAK FA (or T-50), but it probably doesn’t have the radar, avionics and other advanced technology like the F-22. Russia is interested in making directed energy weapons, like the Pentagon’s Active Denial System, while at the same time being more willing to use them to zap crowds. There are plans to upgrade submarines and stealth-killing radars. There is also competition from China, which is boosting its defense budget and has its own Darpa-like tech programs. China has a stealth fighter of its own: the J-20. China’s navy may not be alarming, but its missiles are increasingly lethal, and Beijing is catching up in space. Another problem is that Russia has traditionally built its military around quantity, not quality. It’s been slow to modernize, and the civilian sector has historically been left out, nor did it compete for contracts. That’s changed, but scattered private firms without oversight can also bog down development. Russia’s missile-defense-dodging Bulava ballistic missile was prone to delays and test failures during development. Officials blamed the hundreds of subcontractors supplying parts, with varying degrees of quality. Russian defense subcontractors are also prone to duplicating work because Russia has no centralized database to track research projects. Still, it won’t be as easy as building a database. The agency comes just as Russia is preparing a major arms build-up after nearly two decades of austerity. That means Darpaski has some catching up to do.

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