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News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

A simple Google search for "what does vitamin D do?" highlights the widely used dietary supplement's role in regulating calcium absorption and promoting bone growth. But now it appears that vitamin D has much wider effects -- at least in the nematode worm, C. elegans. Research at the Buck Institute shows that vitamin D works through genes known to influence longevity and impacts processes associated with many human age-related diseases. The study, published in Cell Reports, may explain why vitamin D deficiency has been linked to breast, colon and prostate cancer, as well as obesity, heart disease and depression. "Vitamin D engaged with known longevity genes - it extended median lifespan by 33 percent and slowed the aging-related misfolding of hundreds of proteins in the worm," said Gordon Lithgow, PhD, senior author and Buck Institute professor. "Our findings provide a real connection between aging and disease and give clinicians and other researchers an opportunity to look at vitamin D in a much larger context." The study shines a light on protein homeostasis, the ability of proteins to maintain their shape and function over time. It's a balancing act that goes haywire with normal aging -- often resulting in the accumulation of toxic insoluble protein aggregates implicated in a number of conditions, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, as well as type 2 diabetes and some forms of heart disease. "Vitamin D3, which is converted into the active form of vitamin D, suppressed protein insolubility in the worm and prevented the toxicity caused by human beta-amyloid which is associated with Alzheimer's disease," said Lithgow. "Given that aging processes are thought to be similar between the worm and mammals, including humans, it makes sense that the action of vitamin D would be conserved across species as well." Postdoctoral fellow Karla Mark, PhD, led the team doing the experiments. She says the pathways and the molecular network targeted in the work (IRE-1/XBP-1/SKN-1) are involved in stress response and cellular detoxification. "Vitamin D3 reduced the age-dependent formation of insoluble proteins across a wide range of predicted functions and cellular compartments, supporting our hypothesis that decreasing protein insolubility can prolong lifespan." "We've been looking for a disease to associate with vitamin D other than rickets for many years and we haven't come up with any strong evidence," said Clifford Rosen, MD, the director of the Center for Clinical and Translational Research and a senior scientist at the Maine Medical Center Research Institute studying osteoporosis and obesity. "But if it's a more global marker of health or longevity as this paper suggests, that's a paradigm shift. Now we're talking about something very different and exciting." "This work is really appealing and challenging to the field," said Janice M. Schwartz, MD, a professor of medicine and bioengineering and therapeutic sciences the University of California, San Francisco, and a visiting research scientist at the Jewish Home in San Francisco. She has studied vitamin D supplementation in the elderly. "We focus on vitamin D and the bones because that's where we can measure its impact. I believe that vitamin D is as crucial for total body function and the muscles as it is for bones. Vitamin D influences hundreds of genes - most cells have vitamin D receptors, so it must be very important." How much vitamin D do humans need and how do they best get it? The issue is confusing with disagreement rampant among experts. The Institute of Medicine's (IOM) latest recommendations (from 2011) pertain only to vitamin D's role in bone health and fracture reduction. Experts concluded that evidence for other proposed benefits of vitamin D was inconsistent, inconclusive, or insufficient to set recommended intakes. The IOM recommends a daily intake of 600 International Units (IU) for people between 1 and 70 years old, and 800 IU daily for those older. The upper limit -- the levels above which health risks are thought to increase -- was set at 4,000 IU per day for adults. Excess vitamin D can raise blood levels of calcium which leads to vascular and tissue calcification, with subsequent damage to the heart, blood vessels and kidneys. Many vitamin D researchers and some health organizations, including the Endocrine Society and the International Osteoporosis Foundation, disagreed with the IOM's recommendations for daily intake, instead recommending supplementation of 800 to 2,000 IU per day, at least for people known or likely to have low blood levels. The disagreement highlights another difficulty: measuring blood levels of vitamin D is problematic given a lack of standardization and reliability among labs. Blood levels of the precursor to the active vitamin D are measured in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) in the U.S. Many researchers and expert groups have argued that a blood level of at least 30 ng/mL is optimal; some call for optimum levels to be set at 40 or 50 ng/mL. But the IOM report concluded that blood levels starting at 20 ng/mL would be adequate for bone health in the vast majority of people. Based on problems with laboratory standards and a lack of agreed-upon meaning of results, both Rosen and Schwartz agree that the costs of universal testing for vitamin D levels would outweigh the benefits. Instead, both recommend universal supplementation of between 800 - 1000 IU of vitamin D daily for adults. "It's safe, there's no reason for anyone not to take it," said Schwartz, who has written about vitamin D for the popular press. Schwartz says older adults may be particularly prone to vitamin D deficiency because the skin's ability to manufacture vitamin D from sun or UV light exposure declines with age, adding that the elderly are less likely to spend time in the sun, are more likely to have diets lacking in sources of vitamin D, and may suffer from gastrointestinal disorders that make it harder to absorb vitamin D. Others prone to vitamin D deficiency include those with darker skin and those who live in higher latitudes where the sun's angle is low in the sky. Given adequate funding, senior author Lithgow plans to test vitamin D in mice to measure and determine how it affects aging, disease and function -- and he hopes that clinical trials in humans will go after the same measurements. "Maybe if you're deficient in vitamin D, you're aging faster. Maybe that's why you're more susceptible to cancer or Alzheimer's," he said. "Given that we had responses to vitamin D in an organism that has no bone suggests that there are other key roles, not related to bone, that it plays in living organisms." Lithgow gave a shout out to the tiny, short-lived nematode worms which populated this study. "Working in these simple animals allows us to identify novel molecular pathways that influence how animals age," he said. "This gives us a solid starting point to ask questions and seek definitive answers for how vitamin D could impact human health. We hope that this work will spur researchers and clinicians to look at vitamin D in a larger, whole-person context that includes the aging process."


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A simple Google search for "what does vitamin D do?" highlights the widely used dietary supplement's role in regulating calcium absorption and promoting bone growth. But now it appears that vitamin D has much wider effects -- at least in the nematode worm, C. elegans. Research at the Buck Institute shows that vitamin D works through genes known to influence longevity and impacts processes associated with many human age-related diseases. The study, published in Cell Reports, may explain why vitamin D deficiency has been linked to breast, colon and prostate cancer, as well as obesity, heart disease and depression. "Vitamin D engaged with known longevity genes - it extended median lifespan by 33 percent and slowed the aging-related misfolding of hundreds of proteins in the worm," said Gordon Lithgow, PhD, senior author and Buck Institute professor. "Our findings provide a real connection between aging and disease and give clinicians and other researchers an opportunity to look at vitamin D in a much larger context." The study shines a light on protein homeostasis, the ability of proteins to maintain their shape and function over time. It's a balancing act that goes haywire with normal aging -- often resulting in the accumulation of toxic insoluble protein aggregates implicated in a number of conditions, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, as well as type 2 diabetes and some forms of heart disease. "Vitamin D3, which is converted into the active form of vitamin D, suppressed protein insolubility in the worm and prevented the toxicity caused by human beta-amyloid which is associated with Alzheimer's disease," said Lithgow. "Given that aging processes are thought to be similar between the worm and mammals, including humans, it makes sense that the action of vitamin D would be conserved across species as well." Postdoctoral fellow Karla Mark, PhD, led the team doing the experiments. She says the pathways and the molecular network targeted in the work (IRE-1/XBP-1/SKN-1) are involved in stress response and cellular detoxification. "Vitamin D3 reduced the age-dependent formation of insoluble proteins across a wide range of predicted functions and cellular compartments, supporting our hypothesis that decreasing protein insolubility can prolong lifespan." "We've been looking for a disease to associate with vitamin D other than rickets for many years and we haven't come up with any strong evidence," said Clifford Rosen, MD, the director of the Center for Clinical and Translational Research and a senior scientist at the Maine Medical Center Research Institute studying osteoporosis and obesity. "But if it's a more global marker of health or longevity as this paper suggests, that's a paradigm shift. Now we're talking about something very different and exciting." "This work is really appealing and challenging to the field," said Janice M. Schwartz, MD, a professor of medicine and bioengineering and therapeutic sciences the University of California, San Francisco, and a visiting research scientist at the Jewish Home in San Francisco. She has studied vitamin D supplementation in the elderly. "We focus on vitamin D and the bones because that's where we can measure its impact. I believe that vitamin D is as crucial for total body function and the muscles as it is for bones. Vitamin D influences hundreds of genes - most cells have vitamin D receptors, so it must be very important." How much vitamin D do humans need and how do they best get it? The issue is confusing with disagreement rampant among experts. The Institute of Medicine's (IOM) latest recommendations (from 2011) pertain only to vitamin D's role in bone health and fracture reduction. Experts concluded that evidence for other proposed benefits of vitamin D was inconsistent, inconclusive, or insufficient to set recommended intakes. The IOM recommends a daily intake of 600 International Units (IU) for people between 1 and 70 years old, and 800 IU daily for those older. The upper limit -- the levels above which health risks are thought to increase -- was set at 4,000 IU per day for adults. Excess vitamin D can raise blood levels of calcium which leads to vascular and tissue calcification, with subsequent damage to the heart, blood vessels and kidneys. Many vitamin D researchers and some health organizations, including the Endocrine Society and the International Osteoporosis Foundation, disagreed with the IOM's recommendations for daily intake, instead recommending supplementation of 800 to 2,000 IU per day, at least for people known or likely to have low blood levels. The disagreement highlights another difficulty: measuring blood levels of vitamin D is problematic given a lack of standardization and reliability among labs. Blood levels of the precursor to the active vitamin D are measured in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) in the U.S. Many researchers and expert groups have argued that a blood level of at least 30 ng/mL is optimal; some call for optimum levels to be set at 40 or 50 ng/mL. But the IOM report concluded that blood levels starting at 20 ng/mL would be adequate for bone health in the vast majority of people. Based on problems with laboratory standards and a lack of agreed-upon meaning of results, both Rosen and Schwartz agree that the costs of universal testing for vitamin D levels would outweigh the benefits. Instead, both recommend universal supplementation of between 800 - 1000 IU of vitamin D daily for adults. "It's safe, there's no reason for anyone not to take it," said Schwartz, who has written about vitamin D for the popular press. Schwartz says older adults may be particularly prone to vitamin D deficiency because the skin's ability to manufacture vitamin D from sun or UV light exposure declines with age, adding that the elderly are less likely to spend time in the sun, are more likely to have diets lacking in sources of vitamin D, and may suffer from gastrointestinal disorders that make it harder to absorb vitamin D. Others prone to vitamin D deficiency include those with darker skin and those who live in higher latitudes where the sun's angle is low in the sky. Given adequate funding, senior author Lithgow plans to test vitamin D in mice to measure and determine how it affects aging, disease and function -- and he hopes that clinical trials in humans will go after the same measurements. "Maybe if you're deficient in vitamin D, you're aging faster. Maybe that's why you're more susceptible to cancer or Alzheimer's," he said. "Given that we had responses to vitamin D in an organism that has no bone suggests that there are other key roles, not related to bone, that it plays in living organisms." Lithgow gave a shout out to the tiny, short-lived nematode worms which populated this study. "Working in these simple animals allows us to identify novel molecular pathways that influence how animals age," he said. "This gives us a solid starting point to ask questions and seek definitive answers for how vitamin D could impact human health. We hope that this work will spur researchers and clinicians to look at vitamin D in a larger, whole-person context that includes the aging process." Citation: Vitamin D Promotes Protein Homeostasis and Longevity via the Stress Response Pathway Genes SKN-1, IRE-1, and XBP-1 Other Buck researchers involved in the study are Kathleen J. Dumas, Dipa Bhaumik, Birgit Schilling, Sonnet Davis, Tal Ronnen Oron, Dylan Sorensen, Rachel B. Brem, Simon Melov, Arvind Ramanathan, Bradford W. Gibson and Mark Lucanic. Acknowledgements: The work was supported by funding from the Larry L. Hillblom Foundation, the Glenn Foundation for Medical Research and grants from the National Institutes of Health: UL102417, R01AG029631-01A1, R21AG048528, R01AG029631, PL1 AG032118, 1S10 OD016281. About the Buck Institute for Research on Aging The Buck Institute challenges the way we think about aging by approaching it as if it were a disease. We do not accept aging as inevitable decline. Our mission is to extend the healthy, vital years of life. Our research is aimed at rendering chronic diseases as preventable, deferrable, curable or, at the least, manageable. Whenever possible, we want to restore function. Buck scientists are pioneers. They work in a dynamic, collaborative environment to understand how normal aging contributes to conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, macular degeneration and glaucoma, among others. We are an independent nonprofit organization working in an architectural landmark located in northern Marin County, California. For more information: http://www.


News Article | December 2, 2015
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

A newly discovered biological mechanism channels a mother’s available energy — in the form of fat — straight to the reproductive system during stressful times, protecting future offspring at the cost of the mother’s health. USC’s Sean Curran observed the phenomenon in the worm species C. elegans, but the cellular mechanisms associated with it also exist in humans, raising the possibility that we may share this trait as well. When an organism is exposed to external stresses such as famine, a protein that protects cells called SKN-1 is activated. In addition to stress resistance, activation of SKN-1 also drives the reallocation of lipids from the organism’s soma, or bodily cells, to its germline, or reproductive system, Curran found. Once there, the fats fuel the development of oocytes, or egg cells, making successful reproduction easier; however, the animal itself faces a higher likelihood of a shortened lifespan. (Most C. elegansare hermaphrodites — Curran is still exploring whether the phenomenon also occurs with the male portion of the worm’s reproductive system.) When the organism again obtains nutrients, the presence of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids stop the travel of fats into the reproductive cells, bringing the animal’s ability to resist environmental stressors back to normal. “SKN-1 plays essential roles in survival to stress at all stages in life; however, SKN-1 activation mutants are not long-lived. This is incredibly surprising and confusing at the same time since these animals should be stress resistant,” said Curran, an assistant professor with joint appointments at the USC Davis School of Gerontology and the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. “Our study shows that the reason constitutively active SKN-1 doesn’t confer longevity is because of the movement of lipids from the soma to the germline to promote the necessity of reproduction.” Curran is the senior author of a study on the mechanism published by Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. His collaborators include researchers from USC, Baylor College of Medicine and Massachusetts General Hospital. The researchers looked at stored fat molecules within the worms visually by staining cells and biochemically with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The animals underwent stress from starvation and calorie restriction as well as oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide exposure. Oxidative stresses — an overload of reactive oxygen molecules that has been associated with cancer — can also trigger the activation of SKN-1. Since all organisms that require oxygen have to respond to oxidative stress, an understanding of how oxidative stress responses impact reproduction and vice versa is likely to yield more insights into how survival and reproduction balance against each other depending on resource availability, Curran said. “This is particularly important in the wild, where resource availability is highly variable, and unlike in the laboratory, animals in nature must constantly assess possible risk and future reward,” he explained. Curran is subsequently exploring the signaling mechanisms underlying this fat reallocation and the environmental triggers of the response. Since everything his team has found so far that regulates SKN-1 in worms has also been identified in humans and the balance of somatic resistance and reproduction is important for all organisms, the findings could have implications for reproductive success in older humans, he said. Support for the work was provided by the National Institutes of Health (grant T32AG000037 to first author and Molecular Biology PhD student Dana Lynn, R00AG032308 and R01 GM109028 to Curran), the American Heart Association (Curran), an Ellison New Scholar Award (Curran) and the American Federation for Aging Research (Curran).


Petrova N.,South Ural State University | Zhukov A.,Saint Petersburg State University | Gareeva F.,Saint Petersburg State University | Koscheev A.,Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry | And 2 more authors.
Diamond and Related Materials | Year: 2012

The electrophoretic mobility of nanodiamond (ND) particles measured using laser Doppler electrophoresis in LiCl, NaCl, KCl and CsCl aqueous solutions is reported. The nanodiamond samples included porous aggregates of detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles, completely disaggregated single-digit DND and monolithic 50 nm particles of static high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthesis. Corresponding values of ζ-potential were calculated as functions of electrolyte concentration using different theory of electrophoresis. The use of the Miller formula, which takes into account the electromigration fluxes of ions and electroosmotic flows of solutions in pores of dispersed particles, was found to provide the most accurate ζ-potential values for DND aggregates, while for monolithic ND particles Ohshima's approximation developed for the arbitrary zeta potential value and the Debye length/particle radius ratio is more appropriate. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Shenderova O.,International Technology Center | Koscheev A.,Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry | Zaripov N.,Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry | Petrov I.,SKN | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

Nanodiamond from ozone purification (NDO) demonstrates very distinctive properties within the class of detonation nanodiamonds, namely very high acidity and high colloidal stability in a broad pH range. To understand the origin of these unusual properties of NDO, the nature of the surface functional groups formed during detonation soot oxidation by ozone needs to be revealed. In this work, thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS) and IR spectroscopy were used for the identification of surface groups and it was concluded that carboxylic anhydride groups prevail on the NDO surface. On the basis of the temperature profiles of the desorbed volatile products and their mass balance, it is hypothesized that decomposition of carboxylic anhydride groups from NDO during heating proceeds by two different mechanisms. Other distinctive features of NDO in comparison with air-treated nanodiamond are also reported. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Ivanov M.G.,Ural Federal University | Ivanov D.M.,Ural Federal University | Pavlyshko S.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Petrov I.,SKN | And 3 more authors.
Fullerenes Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures | Year: 2012

In the current paper, it is demonstrated that nanoadditives based on detonation nanodiamonds used in combination with other antifriction\antiwear additives provide from modest to significant improvements of the tribological properties of the commercial lubricating oils depending on the initial formulated oil properties. It was also demonstrated that functionalization of DND surface with fluorine provides beneficial effect. Fluorine-containing DNDs demonstrated superior tribological properties as compared to the pristine non-functionalized particles. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Bednarska-Czerwinska A.,Gyncentrum Klinika Leczenia Nieplodnosci i Diagnostyki Prenatalnej w Katowicach | Mercik D.,Gyncentrum Klinika Leczenia Nieplodnosci i Diagnostyki Prenatalnej w Katowicach | Czerwinski M.,SKN
Ginekologia i Poloznictwo | Year: 2015

This paper discusses significant elements that make up the decidualization of the endometrium which renders this tissue capable of embryo implantation, i.e. makes it receptive. Subsequ- ently, angiogenesis, penetration of the endometrium by macrophages, immune polarization and the problem or maternal immune tolerance to the embryo are discussed. A significant element for effective implantation is the site where the apical layer of the decidua communicates with the outer surfaces of the embryo. This communication is facilitated or prevented by adhesion molecules present in the endometrium. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and its receptor are particularly emphasized. Other markers mentioned in the paper are: mucin (MUC1), glyco- delin A, integrins, L-selectin, interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6), E-cadherin and cyclin. Finally, a search for genetic markers of endometrial receptivity and the role of HOXA-10 and HOXA- 11 genes are presented. © GinPolMedProject.


Ivanov M.G.,Ural State Technical University | Pavlyshko S.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Ivanov D.M.,Ural State Technical University | Petrov I.,SKN | Shenderova O.,International Technology Center
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics | Year: 2010

Results of tribological testing of stable colloidal dispersions of detonation nanodiamond (DND) in combination with other lubricant additives in mineral oil, greases as well as in polyalphaolefin (PAO) oil are reported. The synergistic effect of combining DND with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), copper nanoparticles or a commercial additive Vanlube (non-phosphor containing anti-wear additive) is reported. Testing of the formulations using ring-on-ring, shaft/bushing and four ball test techniques was performed. The test results reveal more than 80-90% decrease of friction coefficient, about 50% decrease of a diameter of wear spot as well as several times increase of extreme pressure failure load for certain formulations. A strong synergistic effect when using a combination of DND/PTFE additives was observed by a sharp decrease of friction coefficient. It was also demonstrated that the use of smaller DND aggregate size (10nm versus 120nm) resulted in better lubricating performance of PAO-based oil formulation. © 2010 American Vacuum Society.


USC's Sean Curran observed the phenomenon in the worm species C. elegans, but the cellular mechanisms associated with it also exist in humans, raising the possibility that we may share this trait as well. When an organism is exposed to external stresses such as famine, a protein that protects cells called SKN-1 is activated. In addition to stress resistance, activation of SKN-1 also drives the reallocation of lipids from the organism's soma, or bodily cells, to its germline, or reproductive system, Curran found. Once there, the fats fuel the development of oocytes, or egg cells, making successful reproduction easier; however, the animal itself faces a higher likelihood of a shortened lifespan. (Most C. elegans are hermaphrodites—Curran is still exploring whether the phenomenon also occurs with the male portion of the worm's reproductive system.) When the organism again obtains nutrients, the presence of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids stop the travel of fats into the reproductive cells, bringing the animal's ability to resist environmental stressors back to normal. "SKN-1 plays essential roles in survival to stress at all stages in life; however, SKN-1 activation mutants are not long-lived. This is incredibly surprising and confusing at the same time since these animals should be stress resistant," said Curran, assistant professor with joint appointments at the USC Davis School of Gerontology and the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. "Our study shows that the reason constitutively active SKN-1 doesn't confer longevity because of the movement of lipids from the soma to the germline to promote the necessity of reproduction." Curran is the senior author of a study on the mechanism, which will be published by Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on November 30, 2015. His collaborators include researchers from USC, Baylor College of Medicine, and Massachusetts General Hospital. The researchers looked at stored fat molecules within the worms visually by staining cells and biochemically with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The animals underwent stress from starvation and calorie restriction as well as oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide exposure. Oxidative stresses - an overload of reactive oxygen molecules that has been associated with cancer - can also trigger the activation of SKN-1. Since all organisms that require oxygen have to respond to oxidative stress, an understanding of how oxidative stress responses impact reproduction and vice versa is likely to yield more insights into how survival and reproduction balance against each other depending on resource availability, Curran says. "This is particularly important in the wild, where resource availability is highly variable, and unlike in the laboratory, animals in nature must constantly assess possible risk and future reward," he explains. Curran is subsequently exploring the signaling mechanisms underlying this fat reallocation and the environmental triggers of the response. Since everything his team has found so far that regulates SKN-1 in worms has also been identified in humans and the balance of somatic resistance and reproduction is important for all organisms, the findings could have implications for reproductive success in older humans, he says. Explore further: Joslin researchers discover new effect for insulin More information: Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids allocate somatic and germline lipids to ensure fitness during nutrient and oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans, PNAS, www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1514012112 Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences


New Real Estate Site Launched to Aid Home Shoppers and Sellers in St Kitts and Nevis charlestown, Saint Kitts and Nevis, December 01, 2016 --( Property owners and real estate professionals would be able to create an account and submit real estate information at their convenience. Property listings would be promoted on social media and search engines to make it easy for home shoppers to discover real estate opportunities and contact the property owners or their representatives. The website will also provide informative articles on topics such as financing, home building, renovations and other areas of interest pertaining to owning a home. For more information, please visit the SKN Listings website: http://sknlistings.com/ charlestown, Saint Kitts and Nevis, December 01, 2016 --( PR.com )-- Browne Media has recently launched sknlistings.com, a website devoted to providing information on real estate for sale or rent in St Kitts and Nevis. The aim of the website is to provide a convenient means of buying and selling property in the federation.Property owners and real estate professionals would be able to create an account and submit real estate information at their convenience. Property listings would be promoted on social media and search engines to make it easy for home shoppers to discover real estate opportunities and contact the property owners or their representatives.The website will also provide informative articles on topics such as financing, home building, renovations and other areas of interest pertaining to owning a home.For more information, please visit the SKN Listings website: http://sknlistings.com/ Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from SKN Listings

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