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Innamorati M.,University of Chieti Pescara | Innamorati M.,European University at Rome | Innamorati M.,Skinner Institute | Balsamo M.,University of Chieti Pescara | And 6 more authors.
Depression Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

Objectives and Methods. The aim of the study was to investigate the construct validity of the ARSQ. Methods. The ARSQ and self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and hopelessness were administered to 774 Italian adults, aged 18 to 64 years. Results. Structural equation modeling indicated that the factor structure of the ARSQ can be represented by a bifactor model: a general rejection sensitivity factor and two group factors, expectancy of rejection and rejection anxiety. Reliability of observed scores was not satisfactory: only 44% of variance in observed total scores was due to the common factors. The analyses also indicated different correlates for the general factor and the group factors. Limitations. We administered an Italian version of the ARSQ to a nonclinical sample of adults, so that studies which use clinical populations or the original version of the ARSQ could obtain different results from those presented here. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the construct validity of the ARSQ is disputable and that rejection anxiety and expectancy could bias individuals to readily perceive and strongly react to cues of rejection in different ways. © 2014 Marco Innamorati et al. Source


Maniglio R.,University of Salento | Gusciglio F.,European University at Rome | Lofrese V.,European University at Rome | Belvederi Murri M.,University of Parma | And 5 more authors.
Comprehensive Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background To elucidate whether abnormal facial emotion processing represents a vulnerability factor for major depression, some studies have explored deficits in emotion processing in individuals at familial risk for depression. Nevertheless, these studies have provided mixed results. However, no studies on facial emotion processing have been conducted in at-risk samples with early or attenuated signs of depression, such as individuals with affective temperaments who are characterized by subclinical depressive moods, cognitions, and behaviors that resemble those that occur in patients with major depression. Methods Presence and severity of depressive symptoms, affective temperaments, death wishes, suicidal ideation, and suicide planning were explored in 231 participants with a mean age 39.9 years (SD = 14.57). Participants also completed an emotion recognition task with 80 emotional face stimuli expressing fear, angry, sad, happy, and neutral facial expressions. Results Participants with higher scores on affective temperamental dimensions containing a depressive component, compared to those with lower scores, reported more depressive symptoms, death wishes, suicide ideation and planning, and an increased tendency to interpret neutral facial expressions as emotional facial expressions; in particular, neutral facial expressions were interpreted more negatively, mostly as sad facial expressions. However, there were no group differences in identification and discrimination of facial expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, and anger. Conclusions A negative bias in interpretation of neutral facial expressions, but not accuracy deficits in recognizing emotional facial expressions, may represent a vulnerability factor for major depression. However, further research is needed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Innamorati M.,European University at Rome | Innamorati M.,Skinner Institute | Innamorati M.,University of Chieti Pescara | Imperatori C.,European University at Rome | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Personality Assessment | Year: 2014

Food craving (FC) might play an important role in the course of eating disorders and obesity. The question of its measurement has particular importance in relation to the dramatic growth in obesity rates and its relevance for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) in overweight and obese patients who were attending weight loss programs, and its efficiency in discriminating patients with binge eating. Participants were 497 (411 women, 86 men) overweight and obese patients in treatment with low-energy diet therapy. We used structural equation modeling to compare 3 factor models tested in previous studies (a 6-factor model, an 8-factor model, and a 9-factor model), which indicated that the 9-factor model has a better fit over the competing models. The FCQ-T had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of.96 for the total score, and between.76 and.92 for subfactors), and was able to discriminate patients with clinical-level binge eating from those with probable and without binge eating with an efficiency of.74 (sensitivity =.64, specificity =.78). FCQ-T scores were sensitive to changes associated with treatment only for patients who started dietary restriction between the baseline and the follow-up assessment, but not for patients who were already observing dietary restrictions at the time of the baseline assessment. These results suggest that the FCQ-T could be a potentially useful measure for the screening of binge eating problems in overweight and obese patients while in treatment. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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