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Pickart L.,Skin Biology | Vasquez-Soltero J.M.,Skin Biology | Pickart F.D.,Skin Biology | Majnarich J.,Bio Research Laboratories
Journal of Analytical Oncology | Year: 2014

GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) is a human plasma copper-binding peptide that declines during aging. Numerous studies have established many biological actions of GHK: it improves tissue regeneration, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, increases cellular stemness; increases decorin, angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth. In recent studies, GHK was found to switch gene expression from a diseased state to a healthier state for certain cancers and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In studies of aggressive, metastatic human colon cancer, the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map indicated that GHK, out of 1,309 bioactive molecules studied, reversed the expression of 70% of 54 genes over-expressed genes. GHK also reactivates programmed cell death in several cultured human cancer lines. To determine GHK's potential as a cancer treatment, we analyzed the molecule's effect on the human gene expression using the Connectivity Map. GHK induces a 50% or greater change of expression in 31.2% of human genes. GHK increased gene expression in 6 of the 12 human caspase genes that activate programmed cell death. In 28 other genes, GHK altered the pattern of gene expression in a manner that would be expected to inhibit cancer growth. For DNA repair genes, there was a one-sided increase in the expression of such genes (47 UP, 5 DOWN). A previous study found that a copper peptide plus ascorbic acid inhibited Ehrlich ascites cancer in mice. Using this method with GHK-copper gave a strong suppression of Sarcoma 180 in mice. These results support the idea that GHK may help to impede or suppress cancer growth. © 2014 Lifescience Global. Source


Pickart L.,Skin Biology | Vasquez-Soltero J.M.,Skin Biology | Margolina A.,Skin Biology
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) is present in human plasma, saliva, and urine but declines with age. It is proposed that GHK functions as a complex with copper 2+ which accelerates wound healing and skin repair. GHK stimulates both synthesis and breakdown of collagen and glycosaminoglycans and modulates the activity of both metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. It stimulates collagen, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and the small proteoglycan, decorin. It also restores replicative vitality to fibroblasts after radiation therapy. The molecule attracts immune and endothelial cells to the site of an injury. It accelerates wound-healing of the skin, hair follicles, gastrointestinal tract, boney tissue, and foot pads of dogs. It also induces systemic wound healing in rats, mice, and pigs. In cosmetic products, it has been found to tighten loose skin and improve elasticity, skin density, and firmness, reduce fine lines and wrinkles, reduce photodamage, and hyperpigmentation, and increase keratinocyte proliferation. GHK has been proposed as a therapeutic agent for skin inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and metastatic colon cancer. It is capable of up- and downregulating at least 4,000 human genes, essentially resetting DNA to a healthier state. The present review revisits GHK's role in skin regeneration in the light of recent discoveries. Copyright © 2015 Loren Pickart et al. Source


Pickart L.,Skin Biology | Vasquez-Soltero J.M.,Skin Biology | Margolina A.,Skin Biology
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

During human aging there is an increase in the activity of inflammatory, cancer promoting, and tissue destructive genes plus a decrease in the activity of regenerative and reparative genes. The human blood tripeptide GHK possesses many positive effects but declines with age. It improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, and boney tissue), increases collagen and glycosaminoglycans, stimulates synthesis of decorin, increases angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, GHK has been found to reset genes of diseased cells from patients with cancer or COPD to a more healthy state. Cancer cells reset their programmed cell death system while COPD patients' cells shut down tissue destructive genes and stimulate repair and remodeling activities. In this paper, we discuss GHK's effect on genes that suppress fibrinogen synthesis, the insulin/insulin-like system, and cancer growth plus activation of genes that increase the ubiquitin-proteasome system, DNA repair, antioxidant systems, and healing by the TGF beta superfamily. A variety of methods and dosages to effectively use GHK to reset genes to a healthier state are also discussed. © 2014 Loren Pickart et al. Source

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