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Bozorgnia Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Hachem M.M.,Skidmore | Campbell K.W.,EQECAT Inc.
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2010

This paper presents the process and fundamental results of a comprehensive ground motion prediction equation (GMPE, or "attenuation" relationship) developed for inelastic response spectra. We used over 3,100 horizontal ground motions recorded in 64 earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from 4.3-7.9 and rupture distances ranging from 0.1-199 km. For each record, we computed inelastic spectra for ductility ranging from one (elastic response) to eight. Our GMPE correlates inelastic spectral ordinates to earthquake magnitude, site-to-source distance, fault mechanism, local soil properties, and basin effects. The developed GMPE is used in both deterministic and probabilistic hazard analyses to directly generate inelastic - spectra. This is in contrast to developing "attenuation" relationships for elastic response spectra, carrying out a hazard analysis, and subsequently adopting approximate rules to derive inelastic response from elastic spectra. © 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.


Bozorgnia Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Hachem M.M.,Skidmore | Campbell K.W.,EQECAT Inc.
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2010

This paper presents deterministic and probabilistic predictions of inelastic response spectra based on a comprehensive ground motion prediction equation (GMPE). Our analysis reveals that over a wide structural period range, the magnitude scaling for an inelastic system is higher than that for an elastic system, especially for ductility levels greater than 2 and magnitude greater than 6.5. Both deterministic and probabilistic hazard analyses show that the "equal displacement rule," to estimate inelastic displacement, is valid for small to moderate magnitudes and/or for low ductility levels. However, it underestimates inelastic deformation even for long period structures if the earthquake magnitude is large and the structure needs to sustain a large ductility. Our study shows that an inelastic GMPE can easily be implemented as part of standard probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) packages to directly generate probabilistic hazard for inelastic response, avoiding possible over- or under-conservatism in approximating inelastic deformation from an elastic system. © 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.


Mazurek A.,Skidmore
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization | Year: 2012

In this paper, similarities between three-force and three-point non-smooth optimization problems are highlighted. Starting from geometrical rules controlling discrete optimum solutions for three-point problems a reasonable hypothesis is created for similar geometrical rules to control discrete optimum structures for three-force problems. The hypothesis is confirmed through a numerical approach. A step-by-step method to graphically obtain a discrete optimum structure for any set of three balanced forces is provided. It is shown that discrete optimum structures with large number of elements converge to the known continuum optimum solutions in the literature. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Yin Y.-J.,Skidmore | Li Y.,Michigan Technological University
Engineering Structures | Year: 2011

In some areas, e.g., mountainous areas in the western United States, both seismic and snow loads are significant. Limited research has been conducted to investigate the seismic risk of light-frame wood construction in those areas considering the combined loads, particularly the snow accumulation. An object-oriented framework of the risk assessment for light-frame wood construction subjected to combined seismic and snow hazards is proposed in this paper. A typical one-story light-frame wood residential building is selected to demonstrate the proposed framework. Economic losses of the building due to the combined hazards are evaluated using the proposed framework. It is found that in areas with significant snow accumulation, the snow load has significant effects on the seismic risk assessment for light-frame wood construction. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


A tubular building enclosure system with thermally-broken glass modules having evacuated air spaces assembled in rows and/or columns to form a structurally self-supporting, thermally insulating, and solar energy collecting facade.

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