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Astermark J.,Skane University Hospital
Blood | Year: 2015

The pathogenesis of inhibitory antibodies has been the focus of major scientific interest over the last decades, and several studies on underlying immune mechanisms and risk factors for formation of these antibodies have been performed with the aim of improving the ability to both predict and prevent their appearance. It seems clear that the decisive factors for the immune response to the deficient factor are multiple and involve components of both a constitutional and therapy-related nature. A scientific concern and obstacle for research in the area of hemophilia is the relatively small cohorts available for studies and the resulting risk of confounded and biased results. Careful interpretation of data is recommended to avoid treatment decisions based on a weak scientific platform. This review will summarize current concepts of the underlying immunological mechanisms and risk factors for development of inhibitory antibodies in patients with hemophilia A and discuss how these findings may be interpreted and influence our clinical management of patients. (Blood. 2015;125(13):2045-2051) © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Berntorp E.,Skane University Hospital | Shapiro A.D.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Haemophilia care has undergone substantial improvements during the past 40-50 years. Early clotting factor concentrates were not sufficiently refined to enable self-administered treatment at home until the 1970s. Unfortunately, these advances led to transmission of viral diseases including HIV and hepatitis, resulting in an increased burden of morbidity and mortality, especially during the 1980s. Throughout the past two decades, product development, including the advent of recombinant concentrates, has greatly improved the safety and availability of therapy and the focus of care is shifting towards prevention and management of disease sequelae. Long-term substitution therapy (prophylaxis) of the missing clotting factor is the recommended treatment in severe haemophilia, but several research issues remain to be elucidated such as when to start and how to optimise these regimens, and when or whether to stop this expensive treatment. The major side-effect of treatment, development of inhibitors to the infused concentrate, is the main threat to the health of patients and consequently the goal of intense research. Development of new products with improved pharmacokinetics is the next step to improved therapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Nilsson P.M.,Skane University Hospital
Aging and Disease | Year: 2014

An increase in peripheral vascular resistance at rest is not routinely observed in healthy older persons, but often associated with increased stiffness of central elastic arteries, as hallmarks of aging effects on the vasculature, referred to as early vascular aging (EVA). In clinical practice, the increased arterial stiffness translates into increased brachial and central systolic blood pressure and corresponding pulse pressure in subjects above 50 years of age, as well as increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness. A c-f PWV value ≥ 10 m/s is currently defined as a threshold for increased cardiovascular risk, based on consensus statement from 2012. Prevention and treatment strategies include a healthy lifestyle and the control of risk factors via appropriate drug therapy to achieve vascular protection related to EVA. New drugs are under development for vascular protection, for example the selective Angiotensin II (AT2) receptor agonist called compound 21. One target group for early intervention could be members of risk families including subjects with early onset cardiovascular disease. Source

Unal C.M.,Skane University Hospital
Seminars in immunopathology | Year: 2011

Gram-negative bacteria have the ability to produce outer membrane-derived vesicles (OMVs) that are released into the extracellular milieu. Even though this intriguing phenomenon is well-known since many years, various aspects of bacterial OMVs are not fully described and are still in the process of being characterized in detail. One major reason for this is that depending on the bacterial species and its respective ecological niche, OMVs exhibit an enormous functional diversity. Research of the past years has clearly shown that OMVs of many pathogenic bacteria contribute to the virulence potential by enriching virulence factors and delivering them over long distances, superseding direct bacterial contact with their host. The subsequent interaction of OMVs with the host can occur at different levels regarding the type of immune response or the target cell type and may lead to different outcomes ranging from non-immunogenic activation or a pro-inflammatory response to cytotoxicity. In contrast to being virulence factors, OMVs are used for vaccination purposes in the combat against bacterial pathogens, and recent research thus is focused on to indirectly aim these versatile bacterial weapons against themselves. Source

Puschmann A.,Skane University Hospital
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2013

Mutations in seven genes are robustly associated with autosomal dominant (SNCA, LRRK2, EIF4G1, VPS35) or recessive (parkin/PARK2, PINK1, DJ1/PARK7) Parkinson's disease (PD) or parkinsonism. Changes in a long list of additional genes have been suggested as causes for parkinsonism or PD, including genes for hereditary ataxias (ATXN2, ATXN3, FMR1), frontotemporal dementia (C9ORF72, GRN, MAPT, TARDBP), DYT5 (GCH1, TH, SPR), and others (ATP13A2, CSF1R, DNAJC6, FBXO, GIGYF2, HTRA2, PLA2G6, POLG, SPG11, UCHL1). This review summarizes the clinical features of diseases caused by mutations in these genes, and their frequencies. Point mutations and multiplications in SNCA cause cognitive or psychiatric symptoms, parkinsonism, dysautonomia and myoclonus with widespread alpha-synuclein pathology in the central and peripheral nervous system. LRRK2 mutations may lead to a clinical phenotype closely resembling idiopathic PD with a puzzling variety in neuropathology. Mutations in parkin/PARK2, PINK1 or DJ1/PARK7 may cause early-onset parkinsonism with a low risk for cognitive decline and a pathological process usually restricted to the brainstem. Carriers of mutations in the other genes may develop parkinsonism with or without additional symptoms, but rarely a disease resembling PD. The pathogenicity of several mutations remains unconfirmed. Although some mutations occur with high frequency in specific populations, worldwide all are very rare. The genetic cause of the majority of patients with sporadic or hereditary PD remains unknown in most populations. Clinical genetic testing is useful for selected patients. Testing strategies need to be adapted individually based on clinical phenotype and estimated frequency of the mutation in the patient's population. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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