Sixtron Advanced Materials Inc.

Dorval, Canada

Sixtron Advanced Materials Inc.

Dorval, Canada
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Kang M.H.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Hong J.,Sixtron Advanced Materials Inc. | Cooper I.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Ebong A.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2011

Lifetime and efficiency degradation under illumination in boron (B) doped Czhochralski (Cz) based solar cells is well established and is attributed to the formation of boron and oxygen complexes. This paper shows that injection of carbon (C) from a SiCxNy antireflection (AR) coating can diffuse into the bulk silicon (Si) during high temperature contact firing and may compete with boron to reduce the number of B-O2i defects and the corresponding LID. Reduction in LID due to additional carbon in the bulk was investigated quantitatively by fabrication and analysis of boron doped Cz cells coated with conventional SiNx as well as novel SiCxN y films deposited from an organosilicon source. SiCxN y coated cells showed an average loss of 0.1 in absolute efficiency due to LID compared to 0.3 loss in absolute efficiency for the counterpart SiNx coated solar cells fabricated on ∼2 cm Cz Si with an oxygen concentration of ∼7 1017 cm-3. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of carbon-oxygen dimmers (C-O2i) which compete with the formation of B-O2i complexes. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

Lair Liquide Societe Anonyme Pour Letude Et Lexploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude and SiXtron Advanced Materials Inc. | Date: 2010-03-23

apparatus for generating gases, namely, gasifers and replacement parts therefor. apparatus for generating gases, namely, gasifiers for laboratory use and replacement parts therefor.

Awad Y.,SiXtron Advanced Materials Inc. | Awad Y.,Université de Sherbrooke | El Khakani M.A.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Scarlete M.,Bishop's University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2010

Amorphous silicon carbon nitride (a-SiCN:H) films were synthesized using vapor transport-chemical vapor deposition technique. Poly(dimethylsilane) was used as a single source for both Si and C. NH3 gas diluted in Ar is used as a source for nitrogen. The composition and bonding states are uniquely characterized with respect to NH3/Ar ratio by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spectral deconvolution is used to extract the individual components of the FTIR and XPS spectra. For instance, the FTIR spectra show a remarkable drop in the intensity of Si-C vibration accompanied by the formation of further bonds including Si-N, C-N, C=N, C≡N, and N-H with increasing NH3/Ar ratio. Moreover, the XPS spectra show the existence of different chemical bonds in the a-SiCN:H films such as Si-C, Si-N, C-N, C=N, and C=C. Both FTIR and XPS data demonstrate that the chemical bonding in the amorphous matrix is more complicated than a collection of single Si-C Si-N, or Si-H bonds. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Kang M.H.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Rohatgi A.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Rohatgi A.,Suniva Inc. | Hong J.,Sixtron Advanced Materials Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2013

Screen-printed metal contact formation through a carbon containing antireflection coating was investigated for silicon solar cells by fabricating conventional carbon-free SiNx and carbon-rich SiCxN y film. An appreciable difference was found in the average shunt resistance (Rsh), which was about an order of magnitude higher for SiCxNy-coated solar cells relative to the counterpart SiNx-coated solar cells. Series resistance (Rs) and fill factor (FF) were comparable for both antireflection coatings but the starting efficiency of SiCxNy-coated cell was ~0·2% lower because of slightly inferior surface passivation. However, SiCxN y-coated solar cells showed less degradation under lower illumination (<1000 W/m2) compared with the SiNx-coated cells due to reduced FF degradation under low illumination. Theoretical calculations in this paper support that this is a direct result of high Rsh. Detailed photovoltaic system and cost modeling is performed to quantify the enhanced energy production and the reduced levelized cost of electricity due to higher shunt resistance of the SiCxNy-coated cells. It is shown that Rsh value below 30 Ω (7000 Ω cm2 for 239 cm2 cell) can lead to appreciable loss in energy production in regions of low solar insolation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Awad Y.,Université de Sherbrooke | Awad Y.,SiXtron Advanced Materials Inc | El Khakani M.A.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Brassard D.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | And 6 more authors.
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2010

We report on the effect of thermal annealing on the structural and mechanical properties of amorphous SiC thin films prepared by means of a polymer-source chemical vapor deposition process. The chemical bondings of the a-SiC:H films were systematically examined by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The film composition was measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while X-ray reflectivity measurements were used to account for the film density variations caused by the post-annealing treatments over the 750-1200 °C range. In addition, their mechanical properties (hardness and Young's modulus) were investigated by using the nano-indentation technique. FTIR measurements revealed that not only the intensity of a-SiC absorption band linearly increases but also its position is found to shift to a higher wave number as a result of annealing. In addition, the bond density of Si-C is found to increase from (101.6-224.5) × 1021 bond·cm- 3 accompanied by a decrease of Si-H bond density from (2.58-0.46)× 1021 bond·cm- 3 as a result of increasing the annealing temperature (Ta) from 750 to 1200 °C. Annealing-induced film densification is confirmed, as the a-SiC film density is found to increase from 2.36 to ∼ 2.75 g/cm- 3 when Ta is raised from 750 to 1200 °C. In addition, as Ta is increased from 750 to 1200 °C, both hardness and Young's modulus are found to increase from 15.5 to 17.6 GPa and 155 to 178 GPa, respectively. Our results confirm the previously established linear correlation between the mechanical properties of the a-SiC films and their bond densities. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kang M.H.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Hong J.,Sixtron Advanced Materials Inc. | Ebong A.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Rounsaville B.,Georgia Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2010

Boron doped Czochralski (Cz) silicon solar cells undergo efficiency degradation under illumination. The light induced degradation (LID) is related to the formation of Bs-O2i complexes which act as a strong recombination centers. This paper shows that carbon present inside the SiC xNy films deposited from polymer solid or liquid source reduce the LID in boron doped Cz solar cells. The in situ grown carbon in the antireflection (AR) films provides a source of additional carbon which gets incorporated into the bulk silicon (Si) during the cell processing. This carbon competes with boron to form a carbonoxygen related complex and reduces the Bs-O2i concentration and the associated LID compared to conventional SiNx coated solar cells. SiCxNy coated solar cells showed 0.1% loss in absolute efficiency due to LID relative to 0.3% degradation in the counterpart SiNx coated solar cells on 2 Ω-cm boron doped Cz material. © 2010 IEEE.

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