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Ohsweken, Canada

Lanktree M.B.,University of Western Ontario | Johansen C.T.,University of Western Ontario | Anand S.S.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Anand S.S.,McMaster University | And 5 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2010

Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of fibrinolysis within both the circulation and the arterial wall, playing roles in both atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To define the heritable component, subjects within the population-based SHARE (Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic groups) and SHARE-AP (Study of Health Assessment and Risk Evaluation in Aboriginal Peoples) studies, composed of Canadians of South Asian (n = 298), Chinese (n = 284), European (n = 227), and Aboriginal (n = 284) descent, were genotyped using the gene-centric Illumina HumanCVD BeadChip. After imputation, more than 150 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than 2000 loci were tested for association with plasma PAI-1 concentration. Marginal association was observed with the PAI-1 locus itself (SERPINE1; P < .05). However, 5 loci (HABP2, HSPA1A, HYAL1, MBTPS1, TARP) were associated with PAI-1 concentration at a P < 1 × 10-5 threshold. The protein products of 2 of these loci, hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2) and hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL1), play key roles in hyaluronan metabolism, providing genetic evidence to link these pathways. © 2010 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Raitakari O.T.,University of Turku | Makinen V.-P.,University of Oulu | McQueen M.J.,McMaster University | Niemi J.,University of Oulu | And 22 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2013

Objective: Apolipoproteins B (apoB) and A1 (apoA1) may be better markers of atherosclerosis than serum lipids. We used computational methods to estimate apoB and apoA1 from serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and tested their clinical value in comparison to measured apoB and apoA1 values. Methods: ApoB and apoA1 were measured with standard methods and estimated based on neural network regression models in 2166 young adult with data on carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT). Results: Correlations between estimated and measured apoB and apoA1 were r = 0.98 and r = 0.95, respectively. ApoB/apoA1-ratio (both measured and estimated) associated with cIMT in multivariable models, and predicted cIMT at all levels of LDL-cholesterol concentration. Strong correlations between the estimated apolipoproteins and those measured from fasting samples were replicated in over 15,000 Caucasian subjects (r = 0.93-0.96 for apoB and r = 0.91-0.92 for apoA1). Correlations with cIMT were replicated in over 2000 individuals. Estimated apoB/apoA1-ratio calculated from non-fasting lipids in over 20,000 individuals in the INTERHEART study was better than any of the cholesterol measures for estimation of the myocardial risk. Conclusions: Serum cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides can be used to compute clinically useful estimates of apoB and apoA1. Using this methodology, estimates of apolipoproteins could be routinely added to laboratory reports to complement lipoprotein lipids in risk assessment. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Oliveira A.P.,McMaster University | Kalra S.,McMaster University | Wahi G.,McMaster University | McDonald S.,McMaster University | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada | Year: 2013

Objective: We sought to characterize maternal health profiles and birth outcomes among First Nations people living in Southern Ontario. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all 453 women from the Six Nations Reserve, Ontario, who were pregnant between 2005 and 2010.Maternal health behaviours, past medical history, physical measurements, birth outcomes, and newborn characteristics were abstracted.Key maternal and newborn characteristics were compared with those of a cohort of non-First Nations women recruited from nearby Hamilton, Ontario. Results: The average age of women in the study cohort was 25. 1 ± 6.2 (mean ± SD) years, and 75.8% were multiparous.The mean pre-pregnancy BMI was 28 3 ± 6 6 kg/m2, and the average weight gain in pregnancy was 14 9 ± 8 3 kg Mean weight gain during pregnancy was inversely associated with pre-pregnancy BMI, and 57.1% of women gained more than the recommended weight.The prevalence of type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes was 4 7%, hypertension was present before or during pregnancy in 5 6%, and 35% used tobacco during pregnancy The mean gestational age at delivery was 39 5 ± 1 7 weeks and the mean crude birth weight was 3619 ± 557 g.The main determinants of newborn weight included sex of the newborn, pre-pregnancy BMI, and weight gain during pregnancy Compared with a contemporary cohort of 622 non-First Nations mothers and newborns, First Nations mothers were, on average, younger (25.1 vs.32.1 years; P< 0.001), had a higher mean pre-pregnancy BMI (28.3 vs .26. 8 kg/m2; P< 0.001), and were more likely to use tobacco during pregnancy (35.0% vs.14.4%; P< 0.001).First Nations newborns had significantly higher mean birth weight (+176 grams) and length (+2.3 cm) than non-First Nations newborns. Conclusion: First Nations mothers from the Six Nations Reserve tended to have a high pre-pregnancy BMI, tended to gain more than the recommended weight during pregnancy, and commonly used tobacco during pregnancy. Programs to prevent overweight/ obesity and excess weight gain during pregnancy and to minimize smoking are required among women of child-bearing age in this community. Objectif: Methodes: Resultats: Conclusion: © 2013 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Source

Mente A.,Population Health Research Institute | Mente A.,McMaster University | Meyre D.,Population Health Research Institute | Meyre D.,McMaster University | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Adiponectin, a secretagogue exclusively produced by adipocytes, has been associated with metabolic features, but its role in the development of the metabolic syndrome remains unclear.Objectives:We investigated the association between serum adiponectin level and metabolic traits, using both observational and genetic epidemiologic approaches in a multiethnic population assembled in Canada.Methods:Clinical data and serum adiponectin level were collected in 1,157 participants of the SHARE/SHARE-AP studies. Participants were genotyped for the functional rs266729 and rs1260326 SNPs in ADIPOQ and GCKR genes.Results:Adiponectin level was positively associated with HDL cholesterol and negatively associated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, systolic and diastolic pressure (all P<0.002). The rs266729 minor G allele was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HOMA-IR (P = 0.004 and 0.003, respectively). The association between rs266729 SNP and HOMA-IR was no longer significant after adjustment for adiponectin concentration (P = 0.10). The rs266729 SNP was associated with HOMA-IR to an extent that exceeded its effect on adiponectin level (0.15 SD 95% C.I. [0.06, 0.24], P<0.001). There was no significant interaction between rs266729 SNP and ethnicity on adiponectin or HOMA-IR. In contrast, the SNP rs1260326 in GCKR was associated with HOMA-IR (P<0.001), but not with adiponectin level (P = 0.67).Conclusion:The association of the functional promoter polymorphism rs266729 with lower serum adiponectin and increased insulin resistance in diverse ethnic groups may suggest a causal relationship between adiponectin level and insulin resistance. © 2013 Mente et al. Source

Mente A.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Mente A.,McMaster University | Razak F.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Blankenberg S.,University of Mainz | And 13 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE - To investigate ethnic differences in adiponectin and leptin concentration and to determine whether these adipokines and a high-glycemic index diet account for ethnic variation in insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In 1,176 South Asian, Chinese, Aboriginal, and European Canadians, fasting blood samples were drawn, and clinical history and dietary habits including glycemic index/glycemic load were recorded using standardized questionnaires. Insulin resistance was defined using homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS - Adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher in Europeans (adjusted mean 12.94 [95% CI 2.27-13.64]) and Aboriginal people (11.87 [11.19-12.59]) than in South Asians (9.35 [8.82-9.92]) and Chinese (8.52 [8.03-9.03]) (overall P < 0.001). Serum leptin was significantly higher in South Asians (11.82 [10.72-13.04]) and Aboriginal people (11.13 [10.13-12.23]) than in Europeans (9.21 [8.38 -10.12]) and Chinese (8.25 [7.48-9.10]). BMI and waist circumference were inversely associated with adiponectin in every group except the South Asians (P < 0.001 for interaction). Adiponectin was inversely and leptin was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.001). The increase in HOMA-IR for each given decrease in adiponectin was larger among South Asians (P = 0.01) and Aboriginal people (P < 0.001) than among Europeans. A high glycemic index was associated with a larger decrease in adiponectin among South Asians (P = 0.03) and Aboriginal people (P < 0.001) and a larger increase in HOMA-IR among South Asians (P < 0.05) relative to that in other groups. CONCLUSIONS - South Asians have the least favorable adipokine profile and, like the Aboriginal people, display a greater increase in insulin resistance with decreasing levels of adiponectin. Differences in adipokines and responses to glycemic foods parallel the ethnic differences in insulin resistance. © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

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