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Apisarnthanarak A.,Thammasat University | Uyeki T.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Puthavathana P.,Siriraj Hospital | Kitphati R.,Thai National Institute of Health
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of an influenza control bundle to minimize healthcare-associated seasonal influenza transmission among healthcare workers (HCWs) in an intensive care unit (ICU) equipped with central air conditioning. METHODS. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a 500-bed tertiary care center in Thailand from July 1, 2005, through June 30, 2009. The medical ICU (MICU) implemented an influenza control bundle including healthcare worker (HCW) education, influenza screening of adult community-acquired pneumonia patients, antiviral treatment of patients and ill HCWs who tested positive for influenza, promotion of influenza vaccination among HCWs, and reinforcement of standard infection control policies. The surgical ICU (SICU) and coronary care unit (CCU) received no intervention. RESULTS. The numbers of influenza infections among HCWs during the pre- and postintervention periods were 18 cases in 5,294 HCW-days and 0 cases in 5,336 HCW-days in the MICU (3.4 vs 0 cases per 1,000 HCW-days; P < .001), 19 cases in 4,318 HCW-days and 20 cases in 4,348 HCW-days in the SICU (4.4 vs 4.6 cases per 1,000 HCW-days; P = .80), and 18 cases in 5,000 HCW-days and 18 cases in 5,143 HCW-days in the CCU (3.6 vs 3.5 cases per 1,000 HCW-days; P = .92), respectively. Outbreak-related influenza occurred in 7 MICU HCWs, 6 SICU HCWs, and 4 CCU HCWs before intervention and 0 MICU HCWs, 9 SICU HCWs, and 8 CCU HCWs after intervention. Before and after intervention, 25 (71%) and 35 (100%) of 35 MICU HCWs were vaccinated, respectively (P < .001); HCW vaccination coverage did not change significantly in the SICU (21 [70%] of 30 vs 24 [80%] of 30; P = .89) and CCU (19 [68%] of 28 vs 21 [75%] of 28; P = .83). The estimated costs of US $6,471 per unit for postintervention outbreak investigations exceeded the intervention costs of US $4,969. CONCLUSION. A sustained influenza intervention bundle was associated with clinical and economic benefits to a Thai hospital. © 2010 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved. Source


Eamsobhana P.,Siriraj Hospital | Wanachiwanawin D.,Siriraj Hospital | Dechkum N.,Mahidol University | Parsartvit A.,Ministry of Public Health | Sen Yong H.,University of Malaya
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2013

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable Angiostrongylus canto-nensis-specific antibodies (n = 10), patients with clinically suspected cases that tested negative for A. cantonensis-an-tibodies (n = 5) and patients with cerebral gnathostomiasis (n = 2) and neurocysticercosis (n = 2) were examined by a single-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the AC primers for the 66-kDa native protein gene. The PCR method detected A. cantonensis DNA in CSF samples from four of 10 serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases. The PCR results were negative for the remaining CSF samples. The nucleotide sequences of three positive CSF-PCR samples shared 98.8-99.2% similarity with the reference sequence of A. cantonensis. These results indicate the potential application of this PCR assay with clinical CSF samples for additional support in the confirmation of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis. Source


Werarak P.,Siriraj Hospital
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet | Year: 2012

Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the common causative pathogens in NP. The prevalence of multi-drug resistance in A. baumannii has been increasing. The information on clinical features and clinical courses of A. baumannii NP in Thai patients are limited. To determine the clinical features, risk factors and clinical courses of A. baumannii NP in Thai patients hospitalized in tertiary care hospitals in Thailand. This was a prospective, hospital-based, active surveillance study on hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in adults hospitalized in 12 tertiary care hospitals in Thailand between 2008 and 2009. There were 651 NP patients. A. baumannii was the most common cause of NP in 198 patients (30.4%). Most of NP patients were males with median age of 71 years. About 80% had late onset NP with the median duration of 10 days after admission in both A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii NP. Most of NP occurred in patients hospitalized in general medical wards. Most of the features of NP in A. baumannii NP and non-A. baumannii NP were not significantly different. The initial antibiotics prescribed were concordant in about 50% of the patients in both groups. Colistin was usually prescribed to the patients who received antibiotic modifications. The initial clinical responses in A. baumannii NP were less favorable than those in non-A. baumannii NP. The mortality rate in A. baumannii NP seemed to be more than that in non-A. baumannii NP. There was a trend of more persistence of pathogen in A. baumannii NP. Most isolates of A. baumannii were resistant to antibiotics including carbapenems. The patients with extensive drug resistant A. baumannii NP had less favorable responses than NP due to other bacteria, including non-extensive drug resistant A. baumannii. VAP, NP developed in medical ICU and NP with bilateral lung involvements on chest X-ray were associated with A. baumannii as the isolated pathogen. A. baumannii is the most common causative pathogen for NP in tertiary care hospitals in Thailand and most of A. baumannii isolates were resistant to many antibiotics including carbapenems. The hospitalized patient in tertiary care hospitals with VAP, or NP that was developed in medical ICU, or NP with bilateral lung involvements on chest x-ray was likely to be due to A. baumannii. Many NP patients received inappropriate initial antibiotic regimens leading to a high mortality. Source


Muangchan C.,University of Western Ontario | Muangchan C.,Mahidol University | Markland J.,Jewish General Hospital | Fritzler M.,Advanced Diagnostics Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2013

Objective. The prevalence of organ complications in scleroderma (systemic sclerosis; SSc) varies by definition used. This study was done to determine the frequency of several features of SSc. Methods. A search of Medline-Ovid/Embase, PubMed, and Scopus databases from 1980 to November 30, 2011, was conducted to identify relevant articles with at least 50 patients with SSc extracting prevalence of each organ complication. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE (Strengthening The Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) checklist. Pooled prevalence was calculated using the random effects method. Heterogeneity was quantified using I2. Results. A total of 5916 articles were identified (913 from Medline-Ovid/Embase, 1009 from PubMed, and 3994 from Scopus); 5665 were excluded, leaving 251 articles for full-text review, with 69 included. Where available, frequencies were also included from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group. Many severe complications in SSc occur about 15% of the time, including cardiac involvement (15%, 95% CI 6-24), diastolic dysfunction (16%, 95% CI 14-17), estimated pulmonary artery pressure > 40 mm Hg (18%, 95% CI 14-21), pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization (15%, 95% CI 12-17), forced vital capacity (FVC) < 70% predicted (15%, 95% CI 12-17), FVC < 80% predicted (17%, 95% CI 12-21), myositis (13%, 95% CI 10-17), inflammatory arthritis (12%, 95% CI 9-16), Sjögren overlap (13%, 95% CI 10-16), and digital ulcers (DU; 15%, 95% CI 10-20); and 15% of DU have complications (amputations 12%, 95% CI 8-16, and hospitalizations 13%, 95% CI 6-21). Scleroderma renal crisis is uncommon but occurs in almost 15% (12%, 95% CI 5-19) of cases of disseminated cutaneous SSc. There is no 15% rule within skin and gastrointestinal tract for SSc. Conclusion. The "15%" rule for frequency of significant organ involvement in SSc is helpful. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2013. All rights reserved. Source


Aswakul P.,Digestive Institute | Prachayakul V.,Siriraj Hospital
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand | Year: 2013

Background: Tropical sprue is an acquired condition seldom reported in travelers from tropical countries including Thailand. Only one case report from Thailand was reported in 1969. Case report: The authors report two cases of American residents living in Thailand and Vietnam who had been suffering from chronic diarrhea, weight loss, being easily fatigued and nutritional deficiency and who dramatically responded after treatment for tropical sprue. However, a relapsed episode was seen in one case and somewhat permanent damage was detected in another case. Conclusion: Tropical sprue is currently which a rare condition for which the diagnosis is obtained by clinical presentation, laboratory tests which show evidence of mal-absorption, endoscopic findings and clinical response to antimicrobial treatment. Source

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