Sirinka Agricultural Research Center

Woldia, Ethiopia

Sirinka Agricultural Research Center

Woldia, Ethiopia
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Hailemariam B.N.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Tagele S.B.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Melaku M.T.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center
Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development | Year: 2016

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important crops grown in the highlands of Wollo, Ethiopia. Yield in the country is generally very low, and diseases represent one of the major production constraints. In Ethiopia, a great variety of diseases affects faba bean production. However, gall forming faba bean disease has become a very serious disease that seriously affected faba bean producing areas. To study the status of this disease in the highlands of Wollo, Ethiopia, a survey was conducted in six major faba bean producing districts during the main cropping season of 2012 and 2013. A total of 119 farmers' fields were visited to determine the incidence and severity of faba bean gall forming new disease. The level of incidence was high in all the five districts, namely Gubalafito, Meket, Woreilu, Wadila, Jama, Legehida and Dessie Zuria. The level of disease severity ranged from 9.9 and 59.3%, while the incidence varied from 50 to 100%. The mean differences in incidence and severity within the districts variable classes, altitude, varieties, growth stage, plant population, planting date, previous crop, weed population and soil type were high. The independent variables: districts, altitude, growth stage, plant population, previous crops, weed population, drainage system and soil types were significantly associated with high incidence and severity of faba bean new disease as single predictor in the logistic regression model. A reduced multiple variable model was fitted using districts, altitude, growth stage, plant population, previous crop, weed population, soil type and drainage system as independent variables. High severity (> 5%) had a high probability of association to all independent variables, except previous crop. There were about 1.44, 2.42 and 2.44 times higher probabilities that faba bean new disease severity exceeded 5% in dense plant population compared to low plant population, high weed population compared to low weed density and bad drainage system compared to moderate drainage system fields, respectively.


Derib S.D.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Descheemaeker K.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | Descheemaeker K.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | Haileslassie A.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2011

In Ethiopia, irrigation is mainly implemented in small-scale irrigation schemes, which are often characterized by low water productivity. This study reports on the efficiency and productivity of a typical small-scale irrigation scheme in the highlands of the Blue Nile, Ethiopia. Canal water flows and the volume of irrigation water applied were measured at field level. Grain and crop residue biomass and grass biomass production along the canals were also measured. To triangulate the measurements, the irrigation farm management, effects of water logging around irrigation canals, farm water distribution mechanisms, effects of night irrigation and water losses due to soil cracking created by prolonged irrigation were closely observed. The average canal water loss from the main, the secondary and the field canals was 2.58, 1.59 and 0.39 l s−1 100 m−1, representing 4.5, 4.0 and 26% of the total water flow respectively. About 0.05% of the loss was attributed to grass production for livestock, while the rest was lost through evaporation and canal seepage. Grass production for livestock feed had a land productivity of 6190.5 kg ha−1 and a water productivity of 0.82 kg m−3. Land productivity for straw and grain was 2048 and 770 kg ha−1, respectively, for teff, and 1864 kg ha−1 and 758 kg ha−1, respectively, for wheat. Water productivities of the crops varied from 0.2 to 1.63 kg m−3. A significant volume of water was lost from small-scale irrigation systems mainly because farmers' water application did not match crop needs. The high price incurred by pumped irrigation positively affected water management by minimizing water losses and forced farmers to use deficit irrigation. Improving water productivity of small-scale irrigation requires integrated interventions including night storage mechanisms, optimal irrigation scheduling, empowerment of farmers to maintain canals and proper irrigation schedules. © 2011, Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.


Kidane Y.G.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | Kidane Y.G.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Mancini C.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | Mengistu D.K.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2017

Smallholder agriculture involves millions of farmers worldwide. A methodical utilization of their traditional knowledge in modern breeding efforts may help the production of locally adapted varieties better addressing their needs. In this study, a combination of participatory approaches, genomics, and quantitative genetics is used to trace the genetic basis of smallholder farmer preferences of durum wheat traits. Two smallholder communities evaluated 400 Ethiopian wheat varieties, mostly landraces, for traits of local interest in two locations in the Ethiopian highlands. For each wheat variety, farmers provided quantitative evaluations of their preference for flowering time, spike morphology, tillering capacity, and overall quality. Ten agronomic and phenology traits were simultaneously measured on the same varieties, providing the means to compare them with farmer traits. The analysis of farmer traits showed that they were partially influenced by gender and location but were repeatable and heritable, in some cases more than metric traits. The durumwheat varieties were genotyped for more than 80,000 SNP markers, and the resulting data was used in a genome wide association (GWA) study providing the molecular dissection of smallholder farmers’ choice criteria. We found 124 putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling farmer traits and 30 putative QTL controlling metric traits. Twenty of such QTL were jointly identified by farmer and metric traits. QTL derived from farmer traits were in some cases dependent on gender and location, but were consistent throughout. The results of the GWA study show that smallholder farmers’ traditional knowledge can yieldQTL eluding metric measurements of phenotypes. We discuss the potential of including farmer evaluations based on traditional knowledge in crop breeding, arguing for the utilization of this untapped resource to develop better adapted genetic materials for local agriculture. © 2017 Kidane, Mancini, Mengistu, Frascaroli, Fadda, Pè and Dell’Acqua.


Deribe B.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Taye M.,Bahir Dar University
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

The study was conducted at Abergele in the semi arid parts of Sekota district to evaluate growth performance of Abergele goats managed under traditional management systems. Data on growth and growth rates were collected from 724 kids for two years. The least squares mean birth, three months, six months and yearling weight of kids obtained were 1.91±0.04, 6.84±0.19, 9.13±0.31 and 16.42±1.20 kg, respectively. Parity of doe and birth type of kid significantly affected birth weight and three months weight while sex of kid and season of birth of kid affected birth, three months, six months and yearling weight consistently. Kids from first parity does were lighter at birth, three months and six months of age than kids from higher parity does. Twin born kids were lower in weight at birth and three months of ages than their single born counterparts. Female kids and kids born during the dry season had lower weight at all ages considered. The least squares mean pre-weaning and post-weaning growth rates obtained were 53.4±2.30 and 29.3±4.32 g day-1, respectively. Parity of doe, type of birth and season birth of kid affected pre-weaning growth rate. Kids from first parity does, twin born kids and kids born during the dry season had lower growth rate. The significant effect of fixed factors needs to be considered in an effort to improve productivity of goats in the study areas. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


PubMed | Sirinka Agricultural Research Center and Bahir Dar University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS | Year: 2014

The study was conducted at Abergele in the semi arid parts of Sekota district to evaluate growth performance of Abergele goats managed under traditional management systems. Data on growth and growth rates were collected from 724 kids for two years. The least squares mean birth, three months, six months and yearling weight of kids obtained were 1.91 +/- 0.04, 6.84 +/- 0.19, 9.13 +/- 0.31 and 16.42 +/- 1.20 kg, respectively. Parity of doe and birth type of kid significantly affected birth weight and three months weight while sex of kid and season of birth of kid affected birth, three months, six months and yearling weight consistently. Kids from first parity does were lighter at birth, three months and six months of age than kids from higher parity does. Twin born kids were lower in weight at birth and three months of ages than their single born counterparts. Female kids and kids born during the dry season had lower weight at all ages considered. The least squares mean pre-weaning and post-weaning growth rates obtained were 53.4 +/- 2.30 and 29.3 +/- 4.32 g day(-1), respectively. Parity of doe, type of birth and season birth of kid affected pre-weaning growth rate. Kids from first parity does, twin born kids and kids born during the dry season had lower growth rate. The significant effect of fixed factors needs to be considered in an effort to improve productivity of goats in the study areas.


Tilahun M.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Kefelegn K.,Haramaya University | Abebe G.,Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program | Goetsch A.L.,Langston University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

The objective of this experiment was to compare the feed intake, digestibility, growth performance, and slaughter characteristics of local genotypes of small ruminants in the central highlands of Ethiopia with Boer goat (B) and Dorper sheep (D) blood levels of 0 %, 25 %, and 50 %. Male goats (27; 6-9 months of age) and sheep (27; 3-5 months) were housed individually in confinement during 90-day experiments. Grass hay (6 % crude protein and 64 % or 67 % neutral detergent fiber) was consumed ad libitum together with concentrate (46 % noug seed cake, 28 % wheat bran, 24 % sorghum grain, and 2 % salt) supplemented at 2 % of their body weight. Initial body weight was 18.1, 20.8, and 24.9 kg for Local, 25 % B, and 50 % B, respectively, and 14.8, 20.3, and 17.9 kg for Local, 25 % D, and 50 % D, respectively. Total dry matter (DM) intake by goats ranked Local < 25 % B < 50 % B, and hay intake was greatest for 50 % B. Intake of hay and total DM by sheep ranked Local < 50 % D < 25 % D. Average daily gain by goats was greatest for 50 % B and by sheep was least for Local. Empty body weight of goats at slaughter and carcass weights ranked Local < 25 % B < 50 % B. Body and carcass weights of sheep were lowest for Local. In addition to the difference between 25 % B and Local goats, these results clearly show potential for greater meat yield with the 50 % than 25 % level of B. The findings also depict considerable opportunity to increase meat production by crossbreeding with D, although greater benefit was not realized with 50 % than 25 % D. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Tesfa T.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Woldetsadik K.,Haramaya University | Bayu W.,ICARDA Ethiopia Watershed Project Coordinator
International Journal of Vegetable Science | Year: 2014

Shallot (Allium cepa var ascalonicum Baker) can be a substitute where bulb onion (A. cepa L. var cepa) does not do well. However, production and productivity of shallot can be limited due to poor soil fertility; lack of improved production techniques; unimproved varieties, and high post-harvest losses. Farmers in northeastern Ethiopia rarely apply fertilizers to shallot. A field study was undertaken in that region in 2007/2008 to determine effects of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and shelf-life of shallot. Treatments were 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg·ha−1 N and cvs. ‘Huruta,’ ‘Negelle,’ ‘Dz-sht-68,’ and a local landrace. Application of 150 kg·ha−1 of N increased marketable and total bulb yields by 26% over the control. The highest and the lowest marketable bulb yields were for ‘Dz-sht-68’ and the local landrace, respectively. In storage nitrogen fertilization increased bulb weight loss in all cultivars, with weight loss being highest for the local landrace. Nitrogen fertilization at 150 kg·ha−1 N increased bulb rotting up to 79% over the control. Shallot shelf-life was of short duration. Application of 100 kg·ha−1 N was optimal for shallot bulb production without affecting bulb quality. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Ashagrie T.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Belew D.,Jimma University | Alamerew S.,Jimma University | Getachew Y.,Jimma University
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2014

A field experiment was conducted at Sirinka Agricultural Research centre Kobo sub center research field during the 2012/2013 under irrigation condition with the objective of assessing the effect of different planting time (October 25, November 5 and November 15) and mother bulb sizes (2-3, 3.1-4 and 4.1-5 cm) on onion seed yield and quality. The study was conducted by using 3×3 factorial design with three replications. Data was collected on growth, yield and quality parameters and analyzed using SAS version 9.2 statistical software. The results of the study showed significant interactions between mother bulb size and planting time on days to 50% flowering, scape diameter (cm), seed yield per plant (g), seed yield per hectare (kg) and germination index. The maximum seed yield (1155.73 kg ha-1) was obtained from large bulbs planted on October 25 while the least (75.15 kg ha-1) from small bulbs planted on November 15. In terms of germination index, the highest (6.03) was obtained from the large bulbs planted on October 25, whereas the lowest germination index (3.37) was from small bulbs planted on November 15. Early planting on October 25 increased germination percentage by 39% than the last planting 15 November. Regarding mother bulb size, large bulbs increased germination percentage by 13.32% than the small bulbs. Correlation coefficient indicated that umbel diameter, seed number per umbel, seed weight per umbel and seed yield per plant were found to have positively and highly significantly correlated with seed yield per hectare. Therefore, based on the findings of the current study, early planting (October 25) of large bulbs (4.1-5 cm) can be used for high yield and better quality of onion seeds. Considering the above mentioned results, it would be advisable to further investgated the seed production potential of different onion types at different locations over years so as to come up with best recommendation. In addition, plant spacing, fertilizer rate and storage methods of onion seed could also be considered. Furthermore, the seed quality performance of imported and locally produced onion seeds could be investigated to promote the onion seed industry. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc.


Shewayrga H.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Sopade P.A.,University of Queensland
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2011

Background: Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley.Methods: A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity.Results: According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation.Conclusions: Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area. © 2011 Shewayrga and Sopade; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Sirinka Agricultural Research Center
Type: | Journal: Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine | Year: 2011

Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley.A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity.According to farmers, barley is the king of crops and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation.Farmers preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

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