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Shah Alam, Malaysia

Palanisamy U.D.,Monash University | Manaharan T.,University of Malaya | Masilami T.,SIRIM Bhd
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Preliminary investigations on 15 plant extracts (ethanolic and aqueous extraction) identified as high antioxidants and having a significant total phenolic content were also seen to have α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. A correlation between the anti-hyperglycemic activity, total phenolic content and antioxidant (DPPH) activity was established. To further substantiate these findings, known phenolic compounds, its antioxidant activity and α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity were determined. The possibility of tannins binding non-specifically to the enzymes thus contributing to the anti-hyperglycemic activity was also investigated. Our study clearly indicated that anti-hyperglycemic activity observed in the plant extracts was indeed not due to tannins non-specific absorption. Source

Palanisamy U.D.,Monash University | Sivanathan M.,International Medical University | Radhakrishnan A.K.,International Medical University | Haleagrahara N.,International Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2011

Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials) from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ostrich oil prior to its use for therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to establish an effective method to bleach ostrich oil using peroxide value as an indicator of refinement. In our study, we showed that natural earth clay was better than bentonite and acid-activated clay to bleach ostrich oil. It was also found that 1 hour incubation at a 150 °C was suitable to lower peroxide value by 90%. In addition, the nitrogen trap technique in the bleaching process was as effective as the continuous nitrogen flow technique and as such would be the recommended technique due to its cost effectiveness. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Manaharan T.,University of Malaya | Teng L.L.,University of Malaya | Appleton D.,University of Malaya | Ming C.H.,University of Malaya | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The leaf and bark extracts of Peltophorum pterocarpum were evaluated for their DPPH, ABTS, and galvinoxyl radicals scavenging activity, phenolic content, α-glucosidase, α-amylase and aldose reductase inhibition, and advanced glycation end-products formation inhibition activities. These extracts showed a far more significant antiglycemic activity compared to the commercial carbohydrate inhibitor, acarbose. The active compound in P. pterocarpum leaf extracts was identified to be quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside. Our findings provide a strong rationale for further in vivo studies and to establish P. pterocarpum's capability as an antiglycemic agent. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ling L.T.,University of Malaya | Radhakrishnan A.K.,International Medical University | Subramaniam T.,SIRIM Bhd | Cheng H.M.,University of Malaya | Palanisamy U.D.,Sunway University
Molecules | Year: 2010

Thirteen Malaysian plants; Artocarpus champeden, Azadirachta indica, Fragaria x ananassa, Garcinia mangostana, Lawsonia inermis, Mangifera indica, Nephelium lappaceum, Nephelium mutobile, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava and Syzygium aqueum, selected for their use in traditional medicine, were subjected to a variety of assays. Antioxidant capability, total phenolic content, elemental composition, as well as it cytotoxity to several cell lines of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from different parts of these selected Malaysian plants were determined. In general, the ethanolic extracts were better free radical scavengers than the aqueous extracts and some of the tested extracts were even more potent than a commercial grape seed preparation. Similar results were seen in the lipid peroxidation inhibition studies. Our findings also showed a strong correlation of antioxidant activity with the total phenolic content. These extracts when tested for its heavy metals content, were found to be below permissible value for nutraceutical application. In addition, most of the extracts were found not cytotoxic to 3T3 and 4T1 cells at concentrations as high as 100 μg/mL. We conclude that although traditionally these plants are used in the aqueous form, its commercial preparation could be achieved using ethanol since a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity is associated with this method of preparation. Copyright © 2010 by the authors. Source

Kumar S.,International Medical University | Chakravarthi S.,International Medical University | Subramaniam T.,SIRIM Bhd | Palanisamy U.,Sunway University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Pathogenic mechanisms of arthritis are studied using Collagen-Induced Arthritis (CIA) animal models. Plant derived antioxidants are known to reduce the inflammatory response in CIA. The aim of the study was to assess the protective efficacy of Nephelium lappaceum ethanol extract against Collagen-Induced Arthritis (CIA) in dark agouti rats. Arthritis was induced with 4 mg kg-1 of collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant. CIA rats were orally treated with 100 and 200 mg kg-1 per oral of TV. lappaceum from day 25-50. Changes in body weight, joint thickness, C-reactive protein were recorded and immunohistochemistry for matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was done. N. lappaceum (100 and 200 mg kg-1) significantly reduced (p<0.05) the arthritis-induced changes in body weight and paw edema. There was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the C-reactive protein in the treatment groups. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in the arthritis-induced histopatho logical changes was seen after treatment with N. lappaceum. Treatment with N. lappaceum showed dose dependent effects on MMP-13 and TIMP-1 levels. N. lappaceum rind extract significantly suppressed the physiological, biochemical and histopathological changes produced during collagen-induced arthritis in dark Agouti rats. N. lappaceum extract supplementation may be beneficial in preventing the tissue damage and inflammatory conditions in arthritis. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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