Shah Alam, Malaysia


Shah Alam, Malaysia
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Kumar S.,International Medical University | Chakravarthi S.,International Medical University | Subramaniam T.,SIRIM Bhd | Palanisamy U.,Sunway University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Pathogenic mechanisms of arthritis are studied using Collagen-Induced Arthritis (CIA) animal models. Plant derived antioxidants are known to reduce the inflammatory response in CIA. The aim of the study was to assess the protective efficacy of Nephelium lappaceum ethanol extract against Collagen-Induced Arthritis (CIA) in dark agouti rats. Arthritis was induced with 4 mg kg-1 of collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant. CIA rats were orally treated with 100 and 200 mg kg-1 per oral of TV. lappaceum from day 25-50. Changes in body weight, joint thickness, C-reactive protein were recorded and immunohistochemistry for matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was done. N. lappaceum (100 and 200 mg kg-1) significantly reduced (p<0.05) the arthritis-induced changes in body weight and paw edema. There was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the C-reactive protein in the treatment groups. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in the arthritis-induced histopatho logical changes was seen after treatment with N. lappaceum. Treatment with N. lappaceum showed dose dependent effects on MMP-13 and TIMP-1 levels. N. lappaceum rind extract significantly suppressed the physiological, biochemical and histopathological changes produced during collagen-induced arthritis in dark Agouti rats. N. lappaceum extract supplementation may be beneficial in preventing the tissue damage and inflammatory conditions in arthritis. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Ling L.T.,University of Malaya | Radhakrishnan A.K.,International Medical University | Subramaniam T.,SIRIM Bhd | Cheng H.M.,University of Malaya | Palanisamy U.D.,Sunway University
Molecules | Year: 2010

Thirteen Malaysian plants; Artocarpus champeden, Azadirachta indica, Fragaria x ananassa, Garcinia mangostana, Lawsonia inermis, Mangifera indica, Nephelium lappaceum, Nephelium mutobile, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava and Syzygium aqueum, selected for their use in traditional medicine, were subjected to a variety of assays. Antioxidant capability, total phenolic content, elemental composition, as well as it cytotoxity to several cell lines of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from different parts of these selected Malaysian plants were determined. In general, the ethanolic extracts were better free radical scavengers than the aqueous extracts and some of the tested extracts were even more potent than a commercial grape seed preparation. Similar results were seen in the lipid peroxidation inhibition studies. Our findings also showed a strong correlation of antioxidant activity with the total phenolic content. These extracts when tested for its heavy metals content, were found to be below permissible value for nutraceutical application. In addition, most of the extracts were found not cytotoxic to 3T3 and 4T1 cells at concentrations as high as 100 μg/mL. We conclude that although traditionally these plants are used in the aqueous form, its commercial preparation could be achieved using ethanol since a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity is associated with this method of preparation. Copyright © 2010 by the authors.

Yoochatchaval W.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi | Yoochatchaval W.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Kumakura S.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Kumakura S.,Nagaoka University of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The biodegradation characteristics of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and the related microbial community were studied in both actual sequential anaerobic ponds in Malaysia and enrichment cultures. The significant degradation of the POME was observed in the second pond, in which the temperature was 35-37°C. In this pond, biodegradation of major long chain fatty acids (LCFA), such as palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1), was also confirmed. The enrichment culture experiment was conducted with different feeding substrates, i.e. POME, C16:0 and C18:1, at 35°C. Good recovery of methane indicated biodegradation of feeds in the POME and C16:0 enrichments. The methane production rate of the C18:1 enrichment was slower than other substrates and inhibition of methanogenesis was frequently observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses indicated the existence of LCFA-degrading bacteria, such as the genus Syntrophus and Syntorophomonas, in all enrichment cultures operated at 35°C. Anaerobic degradation of the POME under mesophilic conditions was stably processed as compared with thermophilic conditions. © IWA Publishing 2011.

Palanisamy U.D.,Monash University | Manaharan T.,University of Malaya | Masilami T.,SIRIM Bhd
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Preliminary investigations on 15 plant extracts (ethanolic and aqueous extraction) identified as high antioxidants and having a significant total phenolic content were also seen to have α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. A correlation between the anti-hyperglycemic activity, total phenolic content and antioxidant (DPPH) activity was established. To further substantiate these findings, known phenolic compounds, its antioxidant activity and α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity were determined. The possibility of tannins binding non-specifically to the enzymes thus contributing to the anti-hyperglycemic activity was also investigated. Our study clearly indicated that anti-hyperglycemic activity observed in the plant extracts was indeed not due to tannins non-specific absorption.

Manaharan T.,University of Malaya | Teng L.L.,University of Malaya | Appleton D.,University of Malaya | Ming C.H.,University of Malaya | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The leaf and bark extracts of Peltophorum pterocarpum were evaluated for their DPPH, ABTS, and galvinoxyl radicals scavenging activity, phenolic content, α-glucosidase, α-amylase and aldose reductase inhibition, and advanced glycation end-products formation inhibition activities. These extracts showed a far more significant antiglycemic activity compared to the commercial carbohydrate inhibitor, acarbose. The active compound in P. pterocarpum leaf extracts was identified to be quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside. Our findings provide a strong rationale for further in vivo studies and to establish P. pterocarpum's capability as an antiglycemic agent. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Palanisamy U.D.,Monash University | Sivanathan M.,International Medical University | Radhakrishnan A.K.,International Medical University | Haleagrahara N.,International Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2011

Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials) from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ostrich oil prior to its use for therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to establish an effective method to bleach ostrich oil using peroxide value as an indicator of refinement. In our study, we showed that natural earth clay was better than bentonite and acid-activated clay to bleach ostrich oil. It was also found that 1 hour incubation at a 150 °C was suitable to lower peroxide value by 90%. In addition, the nitrogen trap technique in the bleaching process was as effective as the continuous nitrogen flow technique and as such would be the recommended technique due to its cost effectiveness. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Palanisamy U.,Monash University | Manaharan T.,University of Malaya | Teng L.L.,University of Malaya | Radhakrishnan A.K.C.,International Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2011

Plant extracts have been suggested as a rich as yet unexplored source of potentially useful anti-diabetic drugs. Recent scientific investigations have confirmed the efficacy of many of these preparations, as effective antioxidants; able to regenerate functional pancreatic beta cells and has a hypoglycemic potential. In this study, the exotic rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) fruit's rind has been shown to be effective in inhibiting the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, alpha glucosidase (EC 50=2.7μg/mL) and alpha amylase (EC 50=70.8μg/mL), at a much more significant level than the drug acarbose (EC 50=3500μg/mL; alpha glucosidase; EC 50=12μg/mL; alpha amylase). In addition, the geraniin-enriched ethanolic extracts were able to inhibit the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, aldol reductase (EC 50=0.04μg/mL) and prevent the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) by 43%. These findings indicate that the geraniin-standardized N. lappaceum rind may be a potential source of an anti-hyperglycemic agent. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Mohamad K.,National University of Malaysia | Sulaiman S.,Sirim BHD | Ramli Z.,National University of Malaysia | Abdul Rahman N.H.S.N.,National University of Malaysia | Samian A.L.,National University of Malaysia
Research Journal of Applied Sciences | Year: 2014

The keris or the dagger is an illustrious weapon renowned for its capacity as an object of cultural heritage and priceless heirloom amongst the Malay people throughout the history of their civilization. Given that there are no documented records as to when the keris was made, reference was made to the reliefs of the keris as depicted at ancient places of worship, namely Candi Sukuh, Candi Borobudur and Candi Prambanan in Java, Indonesia. The keris was crafted and designed by master blacksmiths or Empu by means of several types of metal available at his disposal. There have been very few articles or research published in regards to the metallurgical aspect of the keris. Therefore, this study aspires to unearth the types of metal forged in the blade of the keris by the earlier-mentioned skilled Malay blacksmiths or Empu. In order to achieve the said objective, several laboratory tests were conducted in collaboration with SIRIM BHD (Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia). The laboratory test involve the usage of X-ray Fluorescent Innova-8000 LXZ equipment, a non-destructive technique use for determine the elemental content of the keris, Spectrotest Spark Analyzer (Mobile Edition) SN.4N0088 equipment also use to determine the elemental content of the keris but the technique is a destructive technique. The morphology analysis of the keris is studied by using the Microstructure Analysis test and Hardness test (profile) was done in order to scrutinize the solidity and resistance of the keris blade. Elemental analysis shows that the Iron (Fe) content forms >99% of the content of all the keris that have been analysed. Other elements that exist in Malay keris are silicon, nickel and copper. The evaluation of the Hardness test (profile) illustrated that the blade of the keris had different hardness value or level in the process of its forging and microstructure analysis show that pearlite structure changes and became harden due to the process of forging. It can be concluded here that the Malay keris contain >99% of Iron (Fe) and other elements that exist in the keris are silicon, copper and nickel which is very small on percentage range between 0.1-0.5%. The traditional method of keris making is testament to the Malay blacksmiths or Empu's impeccable capabilities in forging the blade resulting in the different levels of Hardness Value (HV). © Medwell Journals, 2014.

PubMed | International Medical University, University of Malaya and SIRIM Bhd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

The rind of rambutan, which is normally discarded was found to contain extremely high antioxidant activity when assessed using several methods. Although having a yield of only 18%, the ethanolic rambutan rind extract had a total phenolic content of 76210mg GAE/g extract, which is comparable to that of a commercial preparation of grape seed extract. Comparing the extracts pro-oxidant capabilities with vitamin C, -tocopherol, grape seed and green tea, the rind had the lowest pro-oxidant capacity. In addition, the extract at 100g/ml was seen to limit oxidant-induced cell death (DPPH at 50M) by apoptosis to an extent similar to that of grape seed. The extracts were not cytotoxic to normal mouse fibroblast cells or splenocytes while the powderised rind was seen to have heavy metals contents far below the permissible levels for nutraceuticals. Our study for the first time reveals the high phenolic content, low pro-oxidant capacity and strong antioxidant activity of the extract from rind of Nephelium lappaceum. This extract, either alone or in combination with other active principles, can be used in cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

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