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Desai M.P.,Sir Hn Hospital And Research Center | Desai M.P.,B J Wadia Hospital For Children | Mithbawkar S.M.,Sir spital And Research Center | Upadhye P.S.,Sir spital And Research Center | Shalia K.K.,Sir spital And Research Center
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Objective To detect growth hormone GH-1 gene deletions (6.7 kb, 7.6 kb, 7 kb) in familial/nonfamilial isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) and note their clinical and investigative profile. Methods Thirty (M16,F14) prepubertal IGHD patients aged 0.25 to 14 y, from 25 families were screened. Duration of growth failure, relevant history, clinical phenotype, and height SDS were recorded. Peak GH response to Clonidine (0.15 mg/m2), IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and pituitary/target gland hormones were studied. Genomic DNA of patients and family was analysed by PCR and DNA fragments were visualized on agarose gel electrophoresis. Results This series was divided into deletion +ve, Group I (n=12,40%) inclusive of six familial/six nonfamilial patients, and deletion -ve Group II (n=18,60%), 5 familial/13 nonfamilial cases; in total 11/30 were familial. Onset of growth failure was earlier in Group I (p<0.001) mean 1.1 vs 4.7 y. Mean height SDS was -7 vs. -4.5 in Groups I/II (p< 0.01), age at presentation 5.1 vs 8.6 y. Overhanging forehead, prominent eyes, hypoplastic facies characterized Group I with FBS <50 mg/dl in 50% and very low peak GH <0.04 vs 2.04 ng/ml (p<0.001) in Group II. In both groups IGF-1 and IGFBP3 were low, other hormones were normal and MRI showed hypoplastic adenohypophysis. 40% had GH-1 gene deletion (6.7 kb deletion in 83%, 7.6 kb and a compound heterozygote in 8% each). Conclusions In this series of 30 IGHD patients, frequency of GH-1 gene deletions (12/30) was 40%, and 54% among familial patients, and 31% with height SDS≥-4. 83% had 6.7 kb deletion. Height SDS≥-4, clinical phenotype, peak GH<1 ng/ml and hypoglycemia characterised IGHD Type IA. © Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2011.


Deo S.S.,Sir spital And Research Center | Mistry K.J.,Sir spital And Research Center | Kakade A.M.,Sir spital And Research Center | Niphadkar P.V.,Medical Research Society
Lung India | Year: 2010

Objective: Recent evidence suggest that allergen type 2 helper T cells (Th2) play a triggering role in the activation/recruitment of IgE antibody producing B cells, mast cells and eosinophils. Reduced microbial exposure in early life is responsible for a shift of Th1/Th2 balance in the immune system towards the pre-allergic Th2 response. The Th1 predominantly produce IFNγ and delayed type hypersensitivity while Th2 secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13 and regulate B cell and eosinophil mediated responses. To assess regulatory changes in the immune system, in patients with allergy and asthma, we studied the cytokine profile in serum in comparison with normal healthy controls. Patients and Methods: A total of 170 patients with various allergies and asthmatic conditions were studied, for cytokines in the serum by ELISA using kits from Immunotech, and analyzed to identify the triggering factors or main contributors towards allergy and asthma. Results: Our study showed increase in the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 in all groups which were non- significant. But the levels of IL-10, IL-13 and TNF α were highly significant. Besides, we found correlation of GM-CSF with IL-10. Significant correlation with different cytokines was observed. Most of these patients showed increase in IgE levels. Conclusions: This study gives a better understanding of how cytokines are the mediators of balance of Th1 and Th2 immune responses and IgE synthesis is controlled by cytokines. Further studies will eventually lead to improved treatment strategies in the clinical management of IgE mediated allergy.


Desai M.P.,Sir spital And Research Center | Mithbawkar S.M.,Sir spital And Research Center | Upadhye P.S.,Sir spital And Research Center | Rao S.C.,Bai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for Children | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Objective: To screen Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency (IGHD) patients with congenital Familial Isolated (FIGHD) and Nonfamilial Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency (NFIGHD) for GH1gene deletions (6.7 kb,7.6 kb,7 kb) and Growth hormone releasing hormone receptor GHRHR(E72X) gene mutation and study genotype/phenotype correlation in this multicentre study. Methods: Clinical, auxologic (Ht.SDS ≤ -2.5), hormonal and MRI evaluation of hypothalamic/pituitary (HP) axis, IGF1, IGFBP3 estimation and GH stimulation test confirmed IGHD in 107 patients. Of these 107 patients, 97 consented for molecular genetic studies. Height, weight and Bone Age (BA) were obtained. PCR based restriction digestion method was used for molecular genetic analysis of patients and families. Ethics committee approval was obtained. Results: Based on the genotype, these 97 patients (M60,F37;1.62:1) age 3 mo to 17 y belonging to 80 families (consanguinity, 15/80), were categorized into Group I with GH1 gene deletion, n = 17 (17.5 %) from 14 families, Group II with GHRHR (E72X) mutation n = 34 (35 %) from 24 families, Group III, n = 46 (47 %) from 42 families having neither of these deletions/mutations (but with sibling involvement). In Group I, homozygous 6.7 kb and 7.6 kb deletions involved 76 % and 18 %. 6.7 kb deletion with characteristic IGHD phenotype predominated in nonconsanguineous community from Rajasthan having lowest mean FBS (55.6 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and peak GH (0.03 ng/dl, p < 0.01). In Group II phenotype was IB. Twenty one of the 23 FIGHD had homozygous GHRHR(E72X) mutation and four with IGHD had heterozygous GHRHR(E72X) mutation. IGF1 and IGFBP3 were low. MRI showed hypoplastic anterior pituitary (APH) in all. Group III is not discussed in detail. Conclusions: Genetic background is more likely in congenital Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD). GH1gene deletions and GHRHR(E72X) mutation with characteristic phenotypes are encountered in North Western region of India. Regional studies are essential. © 2013 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.


Mashru M.R.,Sir spital And Research Center
Indian heart journal | Year: 2010

To analyze soluble levels ofcell adhesion molecules (CAM) such as Intercellular CAM (ICAM), vascular CAM (VCAM-1), platelet endothelial CAM (PECAM-1), Endothelial (E)-selectin, and Platelet (P)-selectin in coronary artery disease patients and correlate with degree of severity of the disease. Study population included patients who suffered myocardial infarction at presentation (N=49) and those with unstable angina (N=79) and stable angina (N=14). Soluble levels of CAMs were measured by ELISA. At acute event in AMI patients, there was significant rise of soluble (s) E-selectin (4.5 fold, P = 0.001), sVCAM-1 (65.6%, p = 0.001), sPECAM-1 (46.2%, p = 0.02), sP-selectin (42.7%, p = 0.001) and sICAM-1 (20.1%, p = 0.003) as compared to controls. In unstable angina group as compared to AMI there was significant decrease in the levels observed in, sE-selectin (62.7%, p = 0.001), sPECAM-1 (47.5%, p = 0.001) as well as sVCAM-1 (17.9%, p = 0.04) and insignificant decrease with respect to sICAM-1 and no change with respect to sP-selectin levels. Stable angina group as compared to unstable angina group demonstrated no significant difference in sCAMs and the trend with AMI group was similar to that seen between unstable angina and AMI group. Significantly elevated levels of sE-selectin, sVCAM-1 and sPECAM-1 at acute event suggest them to be causal molecules as well as markers of plaque destabilization. Levels of sP-selectin in stable angina were similar to that observed in AMI and unstable angina groups suggesting elevated platelet activation in stable angina as well.


Deo S.S.,Sir spital And Research Center | Bhagat A.R.,Sir spital And Research Center | Shah R.N.,Sir spital And Research Center
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Introduction: Vitiligo is an acquired autoimmune disease of unknown etiology showing depigmentation of the skin due to the absence of melanocytes. Familial vitiligo suggests a genetic origin to this disease. Chromosome 17 was recently demonstrated to harbor the gene coding for NALP1. Patients and Methods: A total of 18 patients of vitiligo were selected on the basis of clinical history. Group 1 (N=8) showing segmental or localized vitiligo with one or two macules on the body. Group 2 (N=10) with generalized or whole body vitiligo. A control group of 10 healthy individuals were selected from our laboratory persons with no history or any infections or skin disease. NALP1 gene expression was studied using RT-PCR assay and the bands quantitated as intensity using volume as measurement and comparison of results was done using SPSS 16 version for statistical analysis. NALP1 gene expression was observed in vitiligo patients with different intensities. Results: Greater reduction in the intensity was seen in Group I, which was inversely proportional to the volume of the band. The intensity of the NALP1 and the GAPDH gene expression was more in Group 2 patients than that shown by Group 1. Conclusion: This study shows expression of NALP1 gene in patients as well as normals. NALP1 is widely expressed at low levels but is expressed at high levels in immune cells, particularly T cells and Langerhans cells, in which different patterns are seen that are consistent with the particular involvement of NALP1 in skin autoimmunity.


Shalia K.K.,Sir spital And Research Center | Doshi S.M.,Sir spital And Research Center | Parikh S.,Sir spital And Research Center | Pawar P.,Sir spital And Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2012

Objectives: The clinical effectiveness of Warfarin is established. Patients require different warfarin dosages to achieve the target therapeutic anticoagulation. The variability of Warfarin dosage is largely genetically determined, and it can be partly explained by the C1173T and G-1639A polymorphisms of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) which is its target and *2 and *3 allele of Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2C9 [CYP2C9] enzyme which metabolizes to its inactive form. Aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of these variant alleles known to influence the warfarin dose and correlate genotypes with the average INR as well as mean dose of Warfarin required to maintain INR, in the Indian population. Methods: Study population included 100 healthy individuals and 83 patients operated for Aortic or Mitral Valve replacement and prescribed warfarin thereafter. Of these 83 patients records of INR for the period of six months and mean maintenance dose (stable therapeutic dose) of warfarin required to maintain INR were available for 26 patients. For the remaining patients, apart from their demographic data only maintenance dose was available. Genotyping of above mentioned polymorphisms was carried out by using PCR-based restriction digestion method. Results: Although less as compared to wild type alleles, the variant alleles of CYP2C9*2 and *3 as well as of VKORC1 polymorphisms (C1173T and G-1639A) were observed in our study population. Mean maintenance dose (mg/day) of Warfarin was in the decreasing order of patients as compared to the wild type genotypes for all above mentioned polymorphisms. The decrease in the dose was in the order of heterozygotes for CYP2C9*2 to CYP2C9*3 to C1173T and G-1639A of VKORC1 (P<0.001). There was significant correlation (r=0.51, P<0.001) observed between the dose estimated by pharmacogenetic algorithm of Sconce et al (2005) and actual stable therapeutic dose. INR was high for mutant variants (3.8 to 4) after first dose suggesting that they require decreased mean daily dose of Warfarin. Conclusion: In the present study the effect of CYP2C9*2, *3, and VKORC1 (C1173T and G-1639A) genotypes on warfarin dose was observed. However, the genotyping has not been incorporated into daily practice. Perhaps more practical approach would be for clinicians to take genotype information into consideration along with other factors when dosing warfarin. © JAPI.


Shalia K.,Sir spital And Research Center | Saranath D.,Narsee Monjee Institute of Management and Higher Studies | Shah V.K.,Sir spital And Research Center
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis | Year: 2015

Background: ATP binding cassette transporter-A1 (ABCA1) facilitates the formation of high density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL due to its anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities provides protection against atherothrombosis or myocardial infarction (MI). The aim was to investigate the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) ABCA1 expression in MI. Methods: The participants comprised 29 males with acute MI (AMI) and 20 healthy controls. AMI patients were normotensive, not on statins, with triglycerides < 200mg/dl and categorized into AMI with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (N = 12) and without T2DM (N = 17). The PBMNC ABCA1 mRNA transcripts were analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) and protein by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: PBMNC ABCA1 mRNA transcript and protein levels were not significantly different in AMI patients or when sub-grouped into with/without T2DM, as compared to controls. ABCA1 protein correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.655, p = 0.021) in AMI patients with T2DM and negatively with age (r = - 0.525, p = 0.031) in AMI patients without T2DM and it was more strongly associated in latter group with smoking and alcohol habit. Conclusion: In the present study, the effects of metabolites of diabetes and ischemia were observed on PBMNC ABCA1 protein and thus on HDL-C in AMI patients. Further influence of risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption observed in the present study can be evaluated in larger sample size. The control of these cardiovascular associated risk factors may increase stability of PBMNC ABCA1 protein and thus HDL-C levels. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Sir spital And Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB | Year: 2012

Hypertension causes complications such as coronary atherosclerosis and thrombosis wherein inflammatory factors play significant role. In the present study inflammatory molecules such as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs); endothelial (E)-selectin, platelet (P)-selectin, intercellular CAM-1 (ICAM-1), vascular CAM-1 (VCAM-1) and platelet endothelial CAM-1 (PECAM-1) were analysed in subjects newly diagnosed with hypertension with no secondary cause against normotensive healthy individuals. In each group 57 subjects were recruited and soluble (s) levels of CAMs were analysed by ELISA. As compared to controls median of sE-selectin (49.2%, P=0.001), sP-selectin (54.3%, P=0.001), and sICAM-1 (18.9%, P=0.012) were significantly elevated in hypertensive subjects. Significant negative correlation was observed of sP-selectin (spearman rank correlation coefficient (rs) =-0.345, p=0.027) and sPECAM-1 (rs =-0.446, p=0.003) with age in hypertension group. Hypertension may increase expression of certain CAMs while younger hypertensives in addition are also at increased risk of atherothrombosis.


PubMed | Sir spital And Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB | Year: 2012

The study aimed to analyze the circulating levels of thrombotic and haemostatic components; tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction at presentation (Group 1, n=49), unstable angina and Non-ST elevated MI after treatment (Group 2, n=22), stable angina (Group 3, n=18) and healthy individuals (Group 4, n=31). Significant finding was increase in tissue factor not only in Group 1 (2.0 fold, P=0.001), Group 2 (2.2 fold, P=0.015) but also in Group 3 (1.8 fold, P=0.018) as compared to controls. In Group 1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 increased significantly (35.8%, P=0.02). Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and tissue plasminogen activator demonstrated increase in Group 1 of age<40 years while insignificant changes in elder patients. Increased thrombotic and decreased fibrinolytic conditions in acute myocardial infarction patients were observed. Increase TF in stable angina demonstrates procoagulant status in these patients as well.


PubMed | Sir spital And Research Center
Type: | Journal: The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2013

The clinical effectiveness of Warfarin is established. Patients require different warfarin dosages to achieve the target therapeutic anticoagulation. The variability of Warfarin dosage is largely genetically determined, and it can be partly explained by the C1173T and G-1639A polymorphisms of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) which is its target and *2 and *3 allele of Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2C9 [CYP2C9] enzyme which metabolizes to its inactive form. Aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of these variant alleles known to influence the warfarin dose and correlate genotypes with the average INR as well as mean dose of Warfarin required to maintain INR, in the Indian population.Study population included 100 healthy individuals and 83 patients operated for Aortic or Mitral Valve replacement and prescribed warfarin thereafter. Of these 83 patients records of INR for the period of six months and mean maintenance dose (stable therapeutic dose) of warfarin required to maintain INR were available for 26 patients. For the remaining patients, apart from their demographic data only maintenance dose was available. Genotyping of above mentioned polymorphisms was carried out by using PCR-based restriction digestion method.Although less as compared to wild type alleles, the variant alleles of CYP2C9*2 and *3 as well as of VKORC1 polymorphisms (C1173T and G-1639A) were observed in our study population. Mean maintenance dose (mg/day) of Warfarin was in the decreasing order of patients as compared to the wild type genotypes for all above mentioned polymorphisms. The decrease in the dose was in the order of heterozygotes for CYP2C9*2 to CYP2C9*3 to C1173T and G-1639A of VKORC1 (P<0.001). There was significant correlation (r=0.51, P<0.001) observed between the dose estimated by pharmacogenetic algorithm of Sconce et al (2005) and actual stable therapeutic dose. INR was high for mutant variants (3.8 to 4) after first dose suggesting that they require decreased mean daily dose of Warfarin.In the present study the effect of CYP2C9*2, *3, and VKORC1 (C1173T and G-1639A) genotypes on warfarin dose was observed. However, the genotyping has not been incorporated into daily practice. Perhaps more practical approach would be for clinicians to take genotype information into consideration along with other factors when dosing warfarin.

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