Kang W.,Sir o Center For Cancer |
Kang W.,Institute of Digestive Disease |
Tong J.H.M.,Sir o Center For Cancer |
Tong J.H.M.,Institute of Digestive Disease |
And 17 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2011
Purpose: Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a multifunctional protein that can interact with different transcription factors to activate gene expression. The role of YAP1 in tumorigenesis is unclear. We aimed to investigate the functional role of YAP1 in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. Experimental Design: YAP1 expresson in gastric adenocarcinoma was evaluated. The biological function was determined by proliferation assay, colony formation, cell invasion, and flow cytometric analysis through knocking down or ectopic expressing YAP1 in gastric cancer cell lines coupled with in vivo study. The possible downstream effectors of YAP1 were investigated by expression microarray. Results: YAP1 protein expression was upregulated in gastric cancer. Nuclear accumulation of YAP1 was associated with poor disease-specific survival (P = 0.021), especially in patients with early-stage diseases (P < 0.001). Knockdown YAP1 resulted in a significant reduction in proliferation, anchoragedependent colony formation, cell invasion, and cell motility. Ectopic YAP1 expression promoted anchorage-independent colony formation, induced a more invasive phenotype, and accelerated cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis highlighted the alteration of MAPK (mitogenactivated protein kinase) pathway by YAP1. We confirmed a constitutive activation of RAF/MEK/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) in YAP1-expressing MKN45 cells and further showed that YAP1 enhanced serum/epidermal growth factor-induced c-Fos expression in gastric cancer cells. Conclusions: Our findings supported that YAP1 exhibits oncogenic property in gastric cancer. We provided the first evidence that YAP1 exerted the oncogenic function by enhancing the capacity to activate the early-response gene pathway. YAP1 could be a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. © 2011 American Association for Cancer Research.
Ma B.B.,Sir o Center for Cancer |
Hui E.P.,Sir o Center for Cancer |
Mok T.S.,Sir o Center for Cancer
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2010
Population-based differences in toxicity and clinical outcome following treatment with anticancer drugs have an important effect on oncology practice and drug development. These differences arise from complex interactions between biological and environmental factors, which include genetic diversity affecting drug metabolism and the expression of drug targets, variations in tumour biology and host physiology, socioeconomic disparities, and regional preferences in treatment standards. Some well-known examples include the high prevalence of activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in pulmonary adenocarcinoma among northeast (China, Japan, Korea) and parts of southeast Asia (excluding India) non-smokers, which predict sensitivity to EGFR kinase inhibitors, and the sharp contrast between Japan and the west in the management and survival outcome of gastric cancer. This review is a critical overview of population-based differences in the four most prevalent cancers in the world: lung, breast, colorectal, and stomach cancer. Particular attention is given to the clinical relevance of such knowledge in terms of the individualisation of drug therapy and in the design of clinical trials. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.