Shields M.J.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency |
Hahn K.R.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency |
Janzen T.W.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency |
Goji N.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012
Food is a vulnerable target for potential bioterrorist attacks; therefore, a critical mitigation strategy is needed for the rapid concentration and detection of biothreat agents from food matrices. Magnetic beads offer a unique advantage in that they have a large surface area for efficient capture of bacteria. We have demonstrated the efficient capture and concentration of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) spores using immunomagnetic beads for a potential food application. Magnetic beads from three different sources, with varying sizes and surface chemistries, were functionalized with monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antibodies from commercial sources and used to capture and concentrate anthrax spores from spiked food matrices, including milk, apple juice, bagged salad, processed meat, and bottled water. The results indicated that the Pathatrix beads were more effective in the binding and capture of anthrax spores than the other two bead types investigated. Furthermore, it was observed that the use of polyclonal antibodies resulted in a more efficient recovery of anthrax spores than the use of monoclonal antibodies. Three different magnetic capture methods, inversion, the Pathatrix Auto system, and the new iCropTheBug system, were investigated. The iCropTheBug system yielded a much higher recovery of spores than the Pathatrix Auto system. Spore recoveries ranged from 80 to 100% for the iCropTheBug system when using pure spore preparations, whereas the Pathatrix Auto system had recoveries from 20 to 30%. Spore capture from food samples inoculated at a level of 1 CFU/ml resulted in 80 to 100% capture for milk, bottled water, and juice samples and 60 to 80% for processed meat and bagged salad when using the iCropTheBug system. This efficient capture of anthrax spores at very low concentrations without enrichment has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of downstream detection technologies and will be a useful method in a foodborne bioterrorism response. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.
Borucki Castro S.I.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Berthiaume R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Laffey P.,Sir nting Research Center |
Fouquet A.,Food Programme |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2010
A study was conducted to determine the iodine concentration in milk and the relationship between that concentration and milking and feeding management practices. Milk samples were collected from the bulk tanks of 501 farms in all provinces of Canada. With a view to obtaining further information about farm management, a questionnaire was completed at each of the selected farms. Total iodine concentration (organic and inorganic) in the milk was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The farms were grouped for each of the variables and, based on significant differences in iodine concentrations, 15 variables were selected for further analysis. A general linear model was fitted, with milk iodine as the response variable to main and two-way interaction effects. The mean iodine concentration in Canadian milk was 304 ± 8.4 μg/kg, with concentrations ranging from 54 to 1,902 μg/kg. Analysis of the questionnaire data suggested that component feeding was associated with lower iodine levels in milk than the levels obtained with total mixed rations. Neither the use of mineral supplementation nor the form of supplementation affected iodine levels in milk. Washing and dipping the teats before milking affected iodine in milk. The method of application of the teat sanitizers appears to be important, given that spray applications (inline or hand spraying) were associated with higher levels than those observed with the dip-cup procedure. In conclusion, Canadian milk iodine concentration varies considerably and appears to be influenced by feeding and milking practices.
Ivy R.A.,Cornell University |
Farber J.M.,Sir nting Research Center |
Pagotto F.,Sir nting Research Center |
Wiedmann M.,Cornell University
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013
Foodborne pathogen isolate collections are important for the development of detection methods, for validation of intervention strategies, and to develop an understanding of pathogenesis and virulence. We have assembled a publicly available Cronobacter (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) isolate set that consists of (i) 25 Cronobacter sakazakii isolates, (ii) two Cronobacter malonaticus isolates, (iii) one Cronobacter muytjensii isolate, which displays some atypical phenotypic characteristics, biochemical profiles, and colony color on selected differential media, and (iv) two nonclinical Enterobacter asburiae isolates, which show some phenotypic characteristics similar to those of Cronobacter spp. The set consists of human (ñ10), food (ñ11), and environmental (ñ9) isolates. Analysis of partial 16S rDNA sequence and seven-gene multilocus sequence typing data allowed for reliable identification of these isolates to species and identification of 14 isolates as sequence type 4, which had previously been shown to be the most common C. sakazakii sequence type associated with neonatal meningitis. Phenotypic characterization was carried out with API 20E and API 32E test strips and streaking on two selective chromogenic agars; isolates were also assessed for sorbitol fermentation and growth at 45°C. Although these strategies typically produced the same classification as sequence-based strategies, based on a panel of four biochemical tests, one C. sakazakii isolate yielded inconclusive data and one was classified as C. malonaticus. EcoRI automated ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI separated the set into 23 unique ribotypes and 30 unique PFGE types, respectively, indicating subtype diversity within the set. Subtype and source data for the collection are publicly available in the PathogenTracker database (www.pathogentracker.net), which allows for continuous updating of information on the set, including links to publications that include information on isolates from this collection. © International Association for Food Protection. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.
Fallahi S.,Sir nting Research Center |
Fallahi S.,University of Ottawa |
Mattison K.,Sir nting Research Center |
Mattison K.,University of Ottawa
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011
Human norovirus (NoV) causes outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis associated with many ready-to-eat foods, including fresh produce. Effective inactivation procedures must consider virus survival under conditions of produce production and processing. This study aimed to investigate the persistence of NoV in a variety of environments, using murine NoV (MNV) as a surrogate for NoV. MNV was incubated for up to 42 days at room temperature on stainless steel disks, on lettuce, on soil, and in potable water and titers determined by plaque assay. A 1-log reduction of MNV infectivity was observed after 29 days in water, 4 days on lettuce, 12 days on soil, and 15 days on stainless steel disks. MNV survived longer in water than in any of the other environments, indicating that drying may contribute to NoV inactivation. MNV genomes were not significantly reduced for up to 42 days, suggesting that genomic detection is not a reliable indicator of viability. Overall, our findings provide valuable information regarding the potential for NoV transmission in the food supply. Copyright © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.