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Kothavade R.J.,Microbiology Laboratory | Kothavade R.J.,Sir Jj Group Of Hospitals | Dhurat R.S.,LTM Medical College | Mishra S.N.,Venereology and Leprology | Kothavade U.R.,University of Alberta
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are known to cause pulmonary, extra-pulmonary, systemic/disseminated, and cutaneous and subcutaneous infections. The erroneous detection of RGM that is based solely on microscopy, solid and liquid cultures, Bactec systems, and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may produce misleading results. Thus, inappropriate therapeutic measures may be used in dermatologic settings, leading to increased numbers of skin deformity cases or recurrent infections. Molecular tools such as the sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and hsp65 or PCR restriction enzyme analyses, and the alternate gene sequencing of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene, dnaJ, the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS), secA, recA1, dnaK, and the 32-kDa protein gene have shown promising results in the detection of RGM species. PCR restriction enzyme analyses (PRA) work better than conventional methods at identifying species that are closely related. Recently introduced molecular tools such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), pyrosequencing, DNA chip technology, and Beacon probes-combined PCR probes have shown comparable results in the detection of various species of RGM. Closely related RGM species (e.g., Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae, and M. abscessus) must be clearly differentiated using accurate molecular techniques because their therapeutic responses are species-specific. Hence, this paper reviews the following aspects of RGM: (i) its sources, predisposing factors, clinical manifestations, and concomitant fungal infections; (ii) the risks of misdiagnoses in the management of RGM infections in dermatological settings; (iii) the diagnoses and outcomes of treatment responses in common and uncommon infections in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients; (iv) conventional versus current molecular methods for the detection of RGM; (v) the basic principles of a promising MALDI-TOF MS, sampling protocol for cutaneous or subcutaneous lesions and its potential for the precise differentiation of M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, and M. abscessus; and (vi) improvements in RGM infection management as described in the recent 2011 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, including interpretation criteria of molecular methods and antimicrobial drug panels and their break points [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs)], which have been highlighted for the initiation of antimicrobial therapy. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Ahmed N.,Hospital Laboratory NHA | Chowdhary A.,Sir Jj Group Of Hospitals
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Purpose: The study was conducted to compare different methods of detection of pathogenic protozoan parasites in stool specimens of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Materials and Methods: Stool specimens of 242 HIV sero-positive patients were examined using the wet mount technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen′s (ZN) staining, auto-fluorescence and auramine fluorescence staining. Patient specimens, 94 and 40 out of 242, were also subjected to Giardia antigen detection using an enzyme immunoassay and Cryptosporidium antigen detection by immuno-chromatography, respectively. For calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, light microscopy of wet mounts and modified ZN stained smears for Giardia and Coccidia, respectively, were considered as gold standards. Results: Sensitivity of auto-fluorescence, auramine-O staining and antigen detection techniques was found to be 100% as compared to the routine standards. The specificity of auto-fluorescence was 90.6% and 100% for Cyclospora and Isospora, respectively; that of auramine-O staining was 98.9% for Cryptosporidium, 99.30% for Cyclospora and 100% for Isospora; and that of antigen detection was 90.6% and 97.7% for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Conclusion: In laboratories requiring screening of large number of stool specimens for detection of protozoan parasites, fluorescence microscopy and antigen detection can be useful techniques. Confirmation of positive results, however, needs to be done with the standard techniques. Source

Mishra N.K.,University of Glasgow | Khadilkar S.V.,Sir Jj Group Of Hospitals
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology

India is silently witnessing a stroke epidemic. There is an urgent need to develop a national program towards "Fighting Stroke". This program should be specific to our national needs. In order to recommend on who should lead an Indian fight-stroke program, we examined the published opinions of stroke clinicians and the official documents on stroke care training abroad. We identified the resources that already exist in India and can be utilized to develop a national fight-stroke program. Through a review of published literature, we noted different opinions that exist on who would best manage stroke. We found that because stroke is a cardiovascular disorder of the central nervous system, its management requires a multi-disciplinary approach involving clinicians with background not limited to neurology. India has very few neurologists trained in stroke medicine and they cannot care for all stroke patients of the country. We propose a mechanism that would quickly put in place a stroke care model relevant in Indian context. We recommend for tapping the clinical expertise available from existing pool of non-neurologist physicians who can be trained and certified in stroke medicine (Strokology). We have discussed an approach towards developing a national network for training and research in Strokology hoping that our recommendations would initiate discussion amongst stroke academicians and motivate the national policy makers to quickly develop an "Indian Fight Stroke Program.". Source

Deshpande A.K.,Sir Jj Group Of Hospitals
Journal of Association of Physicians of India

We report a rare case of a 38 year old female who presented with sudden onset flaccid quadriplegia and respiratory arrest with no significant past clinical history. She was later found to have hypokalemia due to distal renal tubular acidosis and further diagnosed as case of Sjogrens Syndrome. © JAPI. Source

Ramraje S.N.,Sir Jj Group Of Hospitals | Pawar V.I.,Sir Jj Group Of Hospitals
Indian Journal of Surgery

This study was undertaken to assess whether a routine histopathologic examination of two common surgical specimens (appendix and gallbladder) is needed and whether routine histopathologic examination has an impact on further management of patients. Histopathology reports of patients who had undergone appendicectomy and cholecystectomy, between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively in the department of pathology of a tertiary care hospital. The case notes were retrieved in all cases of malignancies. Patients having a clinical diagnosis or suspicion of malignancy were excluded. The incidence and impact of unexpected pathologic diagnosis on postoperative management were noted. The study period included a total of 1,123 and 711 appendicectomy and cholecystectomy specimens, respectively. Fifteen (1.336 %) cases of appendicectomy specimens revealed incidental unexpected pathological diagnoses, which included tubercular appendicitis (n = 2), parasite (n = 8), neuroma (n = 1), carcinoid (n = 2), pseudomyxoma (n = 1), and adenocarcinoma (n = 1). About 88 % of such unexpected appendiceal findings had an impact on postoperative treatment. Unexpected pathologic gallbladder findings were found in 12 (1.68 %) of 711 cholecystectomy specimens. In 6 (0.84 %) cases, gallbladder cancer (GBC) was detected. Additional further management was required in 50 % of patients with unexpected gallbladder findings. Twenty of the total 1,834 specimens (1.090 %) had an impact on patient management or outcome and were not suspected on macroscopic examination at the time of surgery. These would have been missed had the specimens not been examined microscopically. The intraoperative diagnosis of the surgeon is therefore sometimes doubtful in detecting abnormalities of the appendix and gallbladder. This study supports the sending of all appendicectomy and cholecystectomy specimens for routine histopathological examination. Appendix and gallbladder should undergo routine histopathological examination. This is important in patients with advanced age and gallstones. Also, it is of great value in identifying unsuspected conditions which require further postoperative management. Selectively sending specimens for histopathological examination can result in reduced workload on the histopathology department without compromising patient safety. © 2012 Association of Surgeons of India. Source

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