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Moore E.M.,University of Melbourne | Ames D.,University of Melbourne | Ames D.,National Ageing Research Institute | Mander A.G.,Barwon Health | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2014

Background: Folate fortification of food aims to reduce the number of babies born with neural tube defects, but has been associated with cognitive impairment when vitamin B12 levels are deficient. Given the prevalence of low vitamin B12 levels among the elderly, and the global deployment of food fortification programs, investigation of the associations between cognitive impairment, vitamin B12, and folate are needed. Objective: To investigate the associations of serum vitamin B12, red cell folate, and cognitive impairment. Methods: Data were collected on 1,354 subjects in two studies investigating cognitive impairment, and from patients attending for assessment or management of memory problems in the Barwon region of south eastern Australia between 2001 and 2011. Eligible subjects who had blood measurements of vitamin B12 and red cell folate taken within six months of cognitive testing were included. Subjects with stroke or neurodegenerative diseases other than Alzheimer's disease were excluded. A Mini-Mental State Examination score of <24 was used to define impaired cognitive function. Results: Participants with low serum vitamin B12 (<250 pmol/L) and high red cell folate (>1,594 nmol/L) levels were more likely to have impaired cognitive performance (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.60-7.43, p = 0.002) when compared to participants with biochemical measurements that were within the normal ranges. Participants with high folate levels, but normal serum vitamin B12, were also more likely to have impaired cognitive performance (AOR 1.74, 95% CI: 1.03-2.95, p = 0.04). Conclusions: High folate or folic acid supplements may be detrimental to cognition in older people with low vitamin B12 levels. This topic is of global significance due to the wide distribution of food fortification programs, so prospective studies should be a high priority. © 2014-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Moore E.M.,University of Melbourne | Mander A.G.,Barwon Health | Ames D.,University of Melbourne | Ames D.,National Ageing Research Institute | And 19 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations of metformin, serum vitamin B12, calciumsupplements, and cognitive impairment in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSdParticipants were recruited from the Primary Research in Memory (PRIME) clinics study, the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of aging, and the Barwon region of southeastern Australia. Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) (n = 480) or mild cognitive impairment (n = 187) and those who were cognitively intact (n = 687) were included; patients with stroke or with neurodegenerative diseases other than AD were excluded. Subgroup analyses were performed for participants who had either type 2 diabetes (n = 104) or impaired glucose tolerance (n = 22). RESULTSdParticipants with diabetes (n = 126) had worse cognitive performance than participants who did not have diabetes (n = 1,228; adjusted odds ratio 1.51 [95% CI 1.03-2.21]). Among participants with diabetes, worse cognitive performance was associated with metformin use (2.23 [1.05-4.75]). After adjusting for age, sex, level of education, history of depression, serum vitamin B12, and metformin use, participants with diabetes who were taking calcium supplements had better cognitive performance (0.41 [0.19-0.92]). CONCLUSIONSdMetformin use was associated with impaired cognitive performance. Vitamin B12 and calciumsupplementsmay alleviate metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency and were associated with better cognitive outcomes. Prospective trials are warranted to assess the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and calcium use on cognition in older people with diabetes who are taking metformin. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Ellis K.A.,University of Melbourne | Ellis K.A.,Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health | Ellis K.A.,National Ageing Research Institute NARI | Rainey-Smith S.R.,Sir James McCusker Alzheimers Disease Research Unit Hollywood Private Hospital | And 4 more authors.
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

The Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study is a longitudinal study of 1,112 volunteers from healthy, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) populations who are assessed at 18-month intervals in order to enable prospective research into ageing and AD. Using a multidisciplinary battery, AIBL assessments comprise the extensive study of clinical factors and cognitive function, collection of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for biomarker discovery, structural and β-amyloid (Aβ) neuroimaging, and obtaining information on diet and physical activity patterns of the cohort. Now in its seventh year, AIBL is part of a substantial international effort to prospectively study the relationships between clinical characteristics and putative AD biomarkers in groups who carry different risk factors for AD. The identification of biomarkers would provide a window of opportunity to assess AD risk in individuals prior to the onset of advanced clinical symptoms, in addition to facilitating testing of therapeutic and lifestyle interventions likely to emerge within the next decade that prevent or delay symptom emergence in those at high risk for developing AD. In this paper, we present key findings from the AIBL study and discuss how they contribute to our understanding of AD pathogenesis and diagnosis. © 2013 Institute of Psychiatry.

Rembach A.,University of Melbourne | Faux N.G.,University of Melbourne | Watt A.D.,University of Melbourne | Pertile K.K.,University of Melbourne | And 28 more authors.
Alzheimer's and Dementia | Year: 2014

Background: A practical biomarker is required to facilitate the preclinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Plasma amyloid beta (Aβ)1-40, Aβ1-42, Aβn-40, and Aβn-42 peptides were measured at baseline and after 18 months in 771 participants from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of aging. Aβ peptide levels were compared with clinical pathology, neuroimaging and neuropsychological measurements. Results: Although inflammatory and renal function covariates influenced plasma Aβ levels significantly, a decrease in Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 was observed in patients with AD, and was also inversely correlated with neocortical amyloid burden. During the 18 months, plasma Aβ1-42 decreased in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in those transitioning from healthy to MCI. Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with a number of published plasma Aβ studies and, although the prognostic value of individual measures in any given subject is limited, the diagnostic contribution of plasma Aβ may demonstrate utility when combined with a panel of peripheral biomarkers. © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. All rights reserved.

Gupta V.B.,Edith Cowan University | Sundaram R.,Center for Ageing and Alzheimers | Martins R.N.,Edith Cowan University | Martins R.N.,Sir James McCusker Alzheimers Disease Research Unit Hollywood Private Hospital | Martins R.N.,Hollywood Medical Center
Alzheimer's Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

Advances in the field of blood biomarker discovery will help in identifying Alzheimer's disease in its preclinical stage, allowing treatment to be initiated before irreversible damage occurs. This review discusses some recent past and current approaches being taken by researchers in the field. Individual blood biomarkers have been unsuccessful in defining the disease pathology, progression and thus diagnosis. This directs to the need for discovering a multiplex panel of blood biomarkers as a promising approach with high sensitivity and specificity for early diagnosis. However, it is a great challenge to standardize a worldwide blood biomarker panel due to the innate differences in the population tested, nature of the samples and methods utilised in different studies across the globe. We highlight several issues that result in the lack of reproducibility in this field of research currently faced by researchers. Several important measures are summarized towards the end of the review that can be taken to minimize the variability among various centres. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd.

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